Generic placeholder image

Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets


ISSN (Print): 1871-5303
ISSN (Online): 2212-3873

Case Report

Case Report of a Novel NFkB Mutation in a Lymphoproliferative Disorder Patient

Author(s): Khashayar Danandeh, Parnian Jabbari, Elham Rayzan, Samaneh Zoghi, Sepideh Shahkarami, Raul Jimenez Heredia, Ana Krolo, Bibi Shahin Shamsian, Kaan Boztug and Nima Rezaei*

Volume 22, Issue 10, 2022

Published on: 30 June, 2022

Page: [1040 - 1046] Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/1871530322666220407091356

Price: $65


Background: Lymphoproliferative disorders include a heterogeneous list of conditions that commonly involve dysregulation of lymphocyte proliferation resulting in lymphadenopathy and bone marrow infiltration. These disorders have various presentations, most notably autoimmune manifestations, organomegaly, lymphadenopathy, dysgammaglobulinemia, and increased risk of chronic infections.

Case Presentation: A young boy presented with symptoms overlapping different lymphoproliferative disorders, including episodes of chronic respiratory tract infections, dysgammaglobulinemia, lymphadenopathy-associated with splenomegaly as well as skin rashes. Genetic studies revealed multiple heterozygous variants, including a novel mutation in the NFκB1 gene.

Conclusion: This novel mutation can reveal new aspects in the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative disorders and propose new treatments for them.

Keywords: Lymphoproliferative disorder, immunology, NFkB1, case report, autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorder, mutation, bone marrow infiltration.

Graphical Abstract
Elenitoba-Johnson, K.S.; Jaffe, E.S. Lymphoproliferative disorders associated with congenital immunodeficiencies. Semin. Diagn. Pathol., 1997, 14(1), 35-47.
[PMID: 9044508]
D’Arena, G.; Keating, M.J.; Carotenuto, M. Chronic lymphoproliferative disorders: An integrated point of view for the differential diagnosis. Leuk. Lymphoma, 2000, 36(3-4), 225-237.
[] [PMID: 10674895]
Bonilla, F.A.; Barlan, I.; Chapel, H.; Costa-Carvalho, B.T.; Cunningham-Rundles, C.; de la Morena, M.T.; Espinosa-Rosales, F.J.; Hammarström, L.; Nonoyama, S.; Quinti, I.; Routes, J.M.; Tang, M.L.; Warnatz, K. International consensus document (ICON): common variable immunodeficiency disorders. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. Pract., 2016, 4(1), 38-59.
[] [PMID: 26563668]
Lev, A.; Simon, A. J.; Trakhtenbrot, L.; Goldstein, I.; Nagar, M.; Stepensky, P.; Rechavi, G.; Amariglio, N.; Somech, R. Characterizing T cells in SCID patients presenting with reactive or residual T lymphocytes. Clin. Dev. Immunol., 2012, 2012.
Wall, L.; Paris, K. Clinical and immunological features of four patients with x-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) presenting over a one-year period, including a novel mutation in the SH2D1A gene. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2013, 131(2), AB158.
Alexander, H.D.; Markey, G.M.; Nolan, R.L.; Morris, T.C. Cell sizing in chronic lymphoproliferative disorders: An aid to differential diagnosis. J. Clin. Pathol., 1992, 45(10), 875-879.
[] [PMID: 1430257]
Kim, H.J.; Ko, Y.H.; Kim, J.E.; Lee, S.S.; Lee, H.; Park, G.; Paik, J.H.; Cha, H.J.; Choi, Y.D.; Han, J.H.; Huh, J. Hematopathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists. Epstein-barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders: Review and update on 2016 WHO classification. J. Pathol. Transl. Med., 2017, 51(4), 352-358.
[] [PMID: 28592786]
Dierickx, D.; Habermann, T.M. Post-transplantation lymphoprolif-erative disorders in adults. N. Engl. J. Med., 2018, 378(6), 549-562.
[] [PMID: 29414277]
Iwatsuki, K.; Ohtsuka, M.; Harada, H.; Han, G.; Kaneko, F. Clinicopathologic manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus-associated cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders. Arch. Dermatol., 1997, 133(9), 1081-1086.
[] [PMID: 9301584]
Polliack, A.; Lugassy, G. Autoimmunity and auto-immune syndromes associated with and preceding the development of lymphoproliferative disorders. Leukemia, 1992, 6(Suppl. 4), 152-154.
[PMID: 1434818]
Zhang, B.; Lewis, S.M. The splenomegaly of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders: Splenic cellularity and vascularity. Eur. J. Haematol., 1989, 43(1), 63-66.
[] [PMID: 2767243]
Sands, J.; Tuscano, J.M. Geoepidemiology and autoimmune manifestations of lymphoproliferative disorders. Autoimmun. Rev., 2010, 9(5), A335-A341.
[] [PMID: 19914405]
Bryant, V.L.; Tangye, S.G. The expanding spectrum of NFkB1 deficiency; Springer: NewYork, 2016, Vol. 36, pp. 531-532.
Canioni, D.; Jabado, N.; MacIntyre, E.; Patey, N.; Emile, J.F.; Brousse, N. Lymphoproliferative disorders in children with primary immunodeficiencies: Immunological status may be more predictive of the outcome than other criteria. Histopathology, 2001, 38(2), 146-159.
[] [PMID: 11207828]
Erman, B.; Bilic, I.; Hirschmugl, T.; Salzer, E.; Çagdas, D.; Esenboga, S.; Akcoren, Z.; Sanal, O.; Tezcan, I.; Boztug, K. Combined immunodeficiency with CD4 lymphopenia and sclerosing cholangitis caused by a novel loss-of-function mutation affecting IL21R. Haematologica, 2015, 100(6), e216-e219.
[] [PMID: 25769540]
Takagi, M.; Shinoda, K.; Piao, J.; Mitsuiki, N.; Takagi, M.; Matsuda, K.; Muramatsu, H.; Doisaki, S.; Nagasawa, M.; Morio, T.; Kasahara, Y.; Koike, K.; Kojima, S.; Takao, A.; Mizutani, S. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease with somatic KRAS mutation. Blood, 2011, 117(10), 2887-2890.
[] [PMID: 21063026]
McClain, K.L.; Gulati, N. ALPS or not? Blood, 2020, 136(17), 1895-1896.
[] [PMID: 33091136]
Barzaghi, F.; Minniti, F.; Mauro, M.; Bortoli, M.; Balter, R.; Bonetti, E.; Zaccaron, A.; Vitale, V.; Omrani, M.; Zoccolillo, M.; Brigida, I.; Cicalese, M.P.; Degano, M.; Hershfield, M.S.; Aiuti, A.; Bondarenko, A.V.; Chinello, M.; Cesaro, S. ALPS-like phenotype caused by ADA2 deficiency rescued by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Front. Immunol., 2019, 9, 2767.
[] [PMID: 30692987]
Sneller, M.C.; Straus, S.E.; Jaffe, E.S.; Jaffe, J.S.; Fleisher, T.A.; Stetler-Stevenson, M.; Strober, W. A novel lymphoproliferative/autoimmune syndrome resembling murine lpr/gld disease. J. Clin. Invest., 1992, 90(2), 334-341.
[] [PMID: 1386609]
Rieux-Laucat, F. What’s up in the ALPS. Curr. Opin. Immunol., 2017, 49, 79-86.
[] [PMID: 29073495]
Shah, S.; Wu, E.; Rao, V.K.; Tarrant, T.K. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome: An update and review of the literature. Curr. Allergy Asthma Rep., 2014, 14(9), 462.
[] [PMID: 25086580]
Bride, K.; Teachey, D. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome: More than a FAScinating disease. F1000 Res., 2017, 6, 1928.
[] [PMID: 29123652]
Holzelova, E.; Vonarbourg, C.; Stolzenberg, M.C.; Arkwright, P.D.; Selz, F.; Prieur, A.M.; Blanche, S.; Bartunkova, J.; Vilmer, E.; Fischer, A.; Le Deist, F.; Rieux-Laucat, F. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome with somatic Fas mutations. N. Engl. J. Med., 2004, 351(14), 1409-1418.
[] [PMID: 15459302]
Milner, J.D.; Vogel, T.P.; Forbes, L.; Ma, C.A.; Stray-Pedersen, A.; Niemela, J.E.; Lyons, J.J.; Engelhardt, K.R.; Zhang, Y.; Topcagic, N.; Roberson, E.D.; Matthews, H.; Verbsky, J.W.; Dasu, T.; Vargas-Hernandez, A.; Varghese, N.; McClain, K.L.; Karam, L.B.; Nahmod, K.; Makedonas, G.; Mace, E.M.; Sorte, H.S.; Perminow, G.; Rao, V.K.; O’Connell, M.P.; Price, S.; Su, H.C.; Butrick, M.; McElwee, J.; Hughes, J.D.; Willet, J.; Swan, D.; Xu, Y.; Santibanez-Koref, M.; Slowik, V.; Dinwiddie, D.L.; Ciaccio, C.E.; Saunders, C.J.; Septer, S.; Kingsmore, S.F.; White, A.J.; Cant, A.J.; Hambleton, S.; Cooper, M.A. Early-onset lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations. Blood, 2015, 125(4), 591-599.
[] [PMID: 25359994]
Lo, B.; Fritz, J.M.; Su, H.C.; Uzel, G.; Jordan, M.B.; Lenardo, M.J. CHAI and LATAIE: New genetic diseases of CTLA-4 checkpoint insufficiency. Blood, 2016, 128(8), 1037-1042.
[] [PMID: 27418640]
Rieux-Laucat, F.; Kanellopoulos, J.M.; Ojcius, D.M. Scaling the tips of the ALPS. Biomed. J., 2021, 44(4), 383-387.
[] [PMID: 34438083]
Li, F.Y.; Chaigne-Delalande, B.; Su, H.; Uzel, G.; Matthews, H.; Lenardo, M.J. XMEN disease: A new primary immunodeficiency affecting Mg2+ regulation of immunity against Epstein-Barr virus. Blood, 2014, 123(14), 2148-2152.
[] [PMID: 24550228]
Oliveira, J.B. The expanding spectrum of the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes. Curr. Opin. Pediatr., 2013, 25(6), 722-729.
[] [PMID: 24240292]
Melki, I.; Crow, Y.J. Novel monogenic diseases causing human autoimmunity. Curr. Opin. Immunol., 2015, 37, 1-5.
[] [PMID: 26262888]
Oliveira, J.B.; Bleesing, J.J.; Dianzani, U.; Fleisher, T.A.; Jaffe, E.S.; Lenardo, M.J.; Rieux-Laucat, F.; Siegel, R.M.; Su, H.C.; Teachey, D.T.; Rao, V.K. Revised diagnostic criteria and classification for the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS): Report from the 2009 NIH International Workshop. Blood, 2010, 116(14), e35-e40.
[] [PMID: 20538792]
Bleesing, J.J. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Curr. Pharm. Des., 2003, 9(3), 265-278.
[] [PMID: 12570831]
Casamayor-Polo, L.; López-Nevado, M.; Paz-Artal, E.; Anel, A.; Rieux-Laucat, F.; Allende, L.M. Immunologic evaluation and genetic defects of apoptosis in patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab. Sci., 2021, 58(4), 253-274.
[] [PMID: 33356695]
Lambert, M.P. Presentation and diagnosis of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Expert Rev. Clin. Immunol., 2021, 17(11), 1163-1173.
[] [PMID: 34503378]
Kozlov, A.V.; Bykova, T.A.; Borovkova, A.S.; Averjanova, M.Y.; Ovechkina, V.N.; Morozova, E.V.; Zubarovskaya, L.S.; Mamaev, N.N.; Afanasyev, B.V. Common variable immunodeficiency in a child. A case report. Cell. Ther. Transplant., 2017, 6(4 (21)), 60-66.
Gereige, J.D.; Maglione, P.J. Current Understanding and Recent Developments in Common Variable Immunodeficiency Associated Autoimmunity. Front. Immunol., 2019, 10, 2753.
[] [PMID: 31921101]
Cagdas, D.; Halaçlı, S.O.; Tan, Ç.; Lo, B.; Çetinkaya, P.G.; Esenboğa, S.; Karaatmaca, B.; Matthews, H.; Balcı-Hayta, B.; Arıkoğlu, T.; Ezgü, F.; Aladağ, E.; Saltık-Temizel, İ.N.; Demir, H.; Kuşkonmaz, B.; Okur, V.; Gümrük, F.; Göker, H.; Çetinkaya, D.; Boztuğ, K.; Lenardo, M.; Sanal, Ö.; Tezcan, İ. A spectrum of clinical findings from ALPS to CVID: Several novel LRBA defects. J. Clin. Immunol., 2019, 39(7), 726-738.
[] [PMID: 31432443]
Ghosh, S.; Seidel, M.G. Editorial: Current challenges in immune and other acquired cytopenias of childhood. Front Pediatr., 2016, 4(3), 3.
[] [PMID: 26870718]
Rezaei, N.; Notarangelo, L.D.; Aghamohammadi, A. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases; Springer: New York, 2008.
Tuijnenburg, P.; Lango Allen, H.; Burns, S.O.; Greene, D.; Jansen, M.H.; Staples, E.; Stephens, J.; Carss, K.J.; Biasci, D.; Baxendale, H.; Thomas, M.; Chandra, A.; Kiani-Alikhan, S.; Longhurst, H.J.; Seneviratne, S.L.; Oksenhendler, E.; Simeoni, I.; de Bree, G.J.; Tool, A.T.J.; van Leeuwen, E.M.M.; Ebberink, E.H.T.M.; Meijer, A.B.; Tuna, S.; Whitehorn, D.; Brown, M.; Turro, E.; Thrasher, A.J.; Smith, K.G.C.; Thaventhiran, J.E.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Adhya, Z.; Alachkar, H.; Anantharachagan, A.; Antrobus, R.; Arumugakani, G.; Bacchelli, C.; Baxendale, H.; Bethune, C.; Bibi, S.; Boardman, B.; Booth, C.; Browning, M.; Brownlie, M.; Burns, S.; Chandra, A.; Clifford, H.; Cooper, N.; Davies, S.; Dempster, J.; Devlin, L.; Doffinger, R.; Drewe, E.; Edgar, D.; Egner, W.; El-Shanawany, T.; Gaspar, B.; Ghurye, R.; Gilmour, K.; Goddard, S.; Gordins, P.; Grigoriadou, S.; Hackett, S.; Hague, R.; Harper, L.; Hayman, G.; Herwadkar, A.; Hughes, S.; Huissoon, A.; Jolles, S.; Jones, J.; Kelleher, P.; Klein, N.; Kuijpers, T.; Kumararatne, D.; Laffan, J.; Lango Allen, H.; Lear, S.; Longhurst, H.; Lorenzo, L.; Maimaris, J.; Manson, A.; McDermott, E.; Millar, H.; Mistry, A.; Morrisson, V.; Murng, S.; Nasir, I.; Nejentsev, S.; Noorani, S.; Oksenhendler, E.; Ponsford, M.; Qasim, W.; Quinn, E.; Quinti, I.; Richter, A.; Samarghitean, C.; Sargur, R.; Savic, S.; Seneviratne, S.; Sewall, C.; Shackley, F.; Simeoni, I.; Smith, K.G.C.; Staples, E.; Stauss, H.; Steele, C.; Thaventhiran, J.; Thomas, M.; Thrasher, A.; Welch, S.; Willcocks, L.; Workman, S.; Worth, A.; Yeatman, N.; Yong, P.; Ashford, S.; Bradley, J.; Fletcher, D.; Hammerton, T.; James, R.; Kingston, N.; Ouwehand, W.; Penkett, C.; Raymond, F.L.; Stirrups, K.; Veltman, M.; Young, T.; Ashford, S.; Brown, M.; Clements-Brod, N.; Davis, J.; Dewhurst, E.; Erwood, M.; Frary, A.; Linger, R.; Martin, J.; Papadia, S.; Rehnstrom, K.; Astle, W.; Attwood, A.; Bleda, M.; Carss, K.; Daugherty, L.; Deevi, S.; Graf, S.; Greene, D.; Halmagyi, C.; Haimel, M.; Hu, F.; James, R.; Lango Allen, H.; Matser, V.; Meacham, S.; Megy, K.; Penkett, C.; Shamardina, O.; Stirrups, K.; Titterton, C.; Tuna, S.; Turro, E.; Yu, P.; von Ziegenweldt, J.; Furnell, A.; Mapeta, R.; Simeoni, I.; Staines, S.; Stephens, J.; Stirrups, K.; Whitehorn, D.; Rayner-Matthews, P.; Watt, C. NIHR BioResource–Rare Diseases Consortium. Loss-of-function nuclear factor κB subunit 1 (NFKB1) variants are the most common monogenic cause of common variable immunodeficiency in Europeans. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2018, 142(4), 1285-1296.
[] [PMID: 29477724]
Kreuz, S.; Siegmund, D.; Rumpf, J-J.; Samel, D.; Leverkus, M.; Janssen, O.; Häcker, G.; Dittrich-Breiholz, O.; Kracht, M.; Scheurich, P.; Wajant, H. NFkappaB activation by Fas is mediated through FADD, caspase-8, and RIP and is inhibited by FLIP. J. Cell Biol., 2004, 166(3), 369-380.
[] [PMID: 15289496]
Fliegauf, M.; Bryant, V.L.; Frede, N.; Slade, C.; Woon, S.T.; Lehnert, K.; Winzer, S.; Bulashevska, A.; Scerri, T.; Leung, E.; Jordan, A.; Keller, B.; de Vries, E.; Cao, H.; Yang, F.; Schäffer, A.A.; Warnatz, K.; Browett, P.; Douglass, J.; Ameratunga, R.V.; van der Meer, J.W.; Grimbacher, B. Haploinsufficiency of the NF-κB1 subunit p50 in common variable immunodeficiency. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2015, 97(3), 389-403.
[] [PMID: 26279205]
Lorenzini, T.; Fliegauf, M.; Klammer, N.; Frede, N.; Proietti, M.; Bulashevska, A.; Camacho-Ordonez, N.; Varjosalo, M.; Kinnunen, M.; de Vries, E.; van der Meer, J.W.M.; Ameratunga, R.; Roifman, C.M.; Schejter, Y.D.; Kobbe, R.; Hautala, T.; Atschekzei, F.; Schmidt, R.E.; Schröder, C.; Stepensky, P.; Shadur, B.; Pedroza, L.A.; van der Flier, M.; Martínez-Gallo, M.; Gonzalez-Granado, L.I.; Allende, L.M.; Shcherbina, A.; Kuzmenko, N.; Zakharova, V.; Neves, J.F.; Svec, P.; Fischer, U.; Ip, W.; Bartsch, O.; Barış, S.; Klein, C.; Geha, R.; Chou, J.; Alosaimi, M.; Weintraub, L.; Boztug, K.; Hirschmugl, T.; Dos Santos Vilela, M.M.; Holzinger, D.; Seidl, M.; Lougaris, V.; Plebani, A.; Alsina, L.; Piquer-Gibert, M.; Deyà-Martínez, A.; Slade, C.A.; Aghamohammadi, A.; Abolhassani, H.; Hammarström, L.; Kuismin, O.; Helminen, M.; Allen, H.L.; Thaventhiran, J.E.; Freeman, A.F.; Cook, M.; Bakhtiar, S.; Christiansen, M.; Cunningham-Rundles, C.; Patel, N.C.; Rae, W.; Niehues, T.; Brauer, N.; Syrjänen, J.; Seppänen, M.R.J.; Burns, S.O.; Tuijnenburg, P.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Warnatz, K.; Grimbacher, B.; Adhya, Z.; Alachkar, H.; Anantharachagan, A.; Antrobus, R.; Arumugakani, G.; Ashford, S.; Astle, W.J.; Attwood, A.; Bacchelli, C.; Batista, J.; Baxendale, H.E.; Bethune, C.; Bibi, S.; Bleda, M.; Boardman, B.; Booth, C.; Bradley, J.R.; Breen, G.; Brown, M.; Browning, M.J.; Brownlie, M.; Buckland, M.S.; Burns, S.O.; Burren, O.S.; Carss, K.; Chambers, J.; Chandra, A.; Brod, N.C.; Clifford, H.; Cooper, N.; Daugherty, L.C.; Davies, E.G.; Davies, S.; Davis, J.; Deacock, S.; Deevi, S.V.V.; Dempster, J.; Devlin, L.A.; Dewhurst, E.F.; Downes, K.; Drewe, E.; Duarte, D.; Edgar, J.D.M.; Edwards, K.; Egner, W.; El-Shanawany, T.; Erwood, M.; Fletcher, D.; Fox, J.; Frary, A.J.; Frontini, M.; Furnell, A.; Gaspar, H.B.; Ghurye, R.; Gilmour, K.C.; Gleadall, N.S.; Goddard, S.; Gordins, P.; Gräf, S.; Grassi, L.; Greene, D.; Grigoriadou, S.; Hackett, S.; Hague, R.; Haimel, M.; Harper, L.; Hayman, G.; Herwadkar, A.; Hu, F.; Hughes, S.; Huissoon, A.P.; James, R.; Jolles, S.; Jolley, J.; Jones, J.; Karim, Y.; Kasanicki, M.A.; Kelleher, P.; Kempster, C.; Kiani, S.; Kingston, N.; Klein, N.; Kostadima, M.; Kreuzhuber, R.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Kumararatne, D.; Laffan, J.; Allen, H.L.; Lear, S.E.; Linger, R.; Longhurst, H.; Lorenzo, L.E.; Lyons, P.A.; Maimaris, J.; Manson, A.; Mapeta, R.; Martin, J.; McCarthy, M.I.; McDermott, E.M.; McKinney, H.; Meacham, S.; Megy, K.; Millar, H.; Mistry, A.; Morrisson, V.; Murng, S.H.K.; Nasir, I.; Nejentsev, S.; Noorani, S.; Oksenhendler, E.; Ouwehand, W.H.; Papadia, S.; Penkett, C.J.; Petersen, R.; Ponsford, M.J.; Qasim, W.; Quinn, E.; Quinti, I.; Raymond, F.L.; Rayner-Matthews, P.J.; Richter, A.; Samani, N.; Samarghitean, C.; Sanchis-Juan, A.; Sargur, R.B.; Savic, S.; Seneviratne, S.L.; Sewell, W.A.C.; Seyres, D.; Shackley, F.; Shamardina, O.; Simeoni, I.; Simpson, M.A.; Smith, K.G.C.; Staines, S.; Staples, E.; Stark, H.; Stauss, H.; Steele, C.L.; Stephens, J.; Stirrups, K.E.; Thaventhiran, J.E.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, M.J.; Thomas, P.; Thrasher, A.J.; Tilly, T.; Titterton, C.; Treadaway, P.; Tuna, S.; Turro, E.; Urniaz, R.; von Ziegenweidt, J.; Walker, N.; Watt, C.; Welch, S.B.; Whitehorn, D.; Willcocks, L.; Wood, N.; Wood, Y.; Workman, S.; Worth, A.; Yates, K.; Yeatman, N.; Yong, P.F.K.; Young, T.; Yu, P.; Zlamalova, E. NIHR BioResource; NIHR BioResource. Characterization of the clinical and immunologic phenotype and management of 157 individuals with 56 distinct heterozygous NFKB1 mutations. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2020, 146(4), 901-911.
[] [PMID: 32278790]
Su, H.C.; Lenardo, M.J. Genetic defects of apoptosis and primary immunodeficiency. Immunol. Allergy Clin. North Am., 2008, 28(2), 329-351. ix.
[] [PMID: 18424336]
Liu, F.; Bardhan, K.; Yang, D.; Thangaraju, M.; Ganapathy, V.; Waller, J.L.; Liles, G.B.; Lee, J.R.; Liu, K. NF-κB directly regulates Fas transcription to modulate Fas-mediated apoptosis and tumor suppression. J. Biol. Chem., 2012, 287(30), 25530-25540.
[] [PMID: 22669972]
Rao, V.K. Approaches to managing autoimmune cytopenias in novel immunological disorders with genetic underpinnings like autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Front Pediatr., 2015, 3, 65.
[] [PMID: 26258116]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy