Generic placeholder image

Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1871-5265
ISSN (Online): 2212-3989

Mini-Review Article

COVID-19 and Coinfections: A Serious Health Threat Requires Combination of Diagnosis and Therapy

Author(s): Shahid Nawaz* and Maira Saleem

Volume 22, Issue 7, 2022

Published on: 30 June, 2022

Article ID: e070422203215 Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/1871526522666220407001744

Price: $65

Abstract

Since the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019, a mammoth research activity targeting the etiological features of COVID-19 has commenced. Many aspects of the disease have been studied, and various others are under consideration. The secondary microbial coinfections with COVID-19 have generated some serious concerns across the globe. This review mainly focuses on the notable secondary coinfections. The coinfection of influenza, tuberculosis, and typhoid may mimic the original COVID-19 symptoms. Physicians and clinicians must focus on the secondary coinfections which may aggravate the disease progression towards acute respiratory disorder syndrome (ARDS). Diagnostic strategies must also be redefined to determine the actual underlying secondary coinfection. There is a need for combination therapy and diagnostic approaches to minimize the risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic effectively.

Keywords: COVID-19, coinfection, influenza, typhoid, dengue, hepatitis, mucormycosis.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
WHO. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard, 2022. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/
[2]
Wu YC, Chen CS, Chan YJ. The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview. J Chin Med Assoc 2020; 83(3): 217-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270] [PMID: 32134861]
[3]
Machado BAS, Hodel KVS, Barbosa-Júnior VG, Soares MBP, Badaró R. The main molecular and serological methods for diagnosing COVID-19: An overview based on the literature. Viruses 2020; 13(1): 40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13010040] [PMID: 33383888]
[4]
Long QX, Tang XJ, Shi QL, et al. Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nat Med 2020; 26(8): 1200-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0965-6] [PMID: 32555424]
[5]
Nawaz S. COVID-19, SARS -CoV-2, origin, transmission and treatment aspects, a brief review. Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020; 2020
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666201006163641] [PMID: 33023459]
[6]
Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique R. COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human corona-viruses. J Adv Res 2020; 24: 91-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.03.005] [PMID: 32257431]
[7]
Li R, Pei S, Chen B, et al. Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Science 2020; 368(6490): 489-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abb3221] [PMID: 32179701]
[8]
Lai CC, Wang CY, Hsueh PR. Co-infections among patients with COVID-19: The need for combination therapy with non-anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents? J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2020; 53(4): 505-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.05.013] [PMID: 32482366]
[9]
Mohamed AA, Tantawi OI, Fathalla LA, et al. COVID-19: Urgent call to action. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem 2021; 20(2): 118-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871523019666201202092859]
[10]
Mohamed AA, Mohamed N, Mohamoud S, et al. SARS-CoV-2: The path of prevention and control. Infect Disord Drug Targets 2021; 21(3): 358-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200520112848]
[11]
Kalantar-Zadeh K, Ward SA, Kalantar-Zadeh K, El-Omar EM. Considering the effects of microbiome and diet on SARS-CoV-2 infection: Nanotechnology roles. ACS Nano 2020; 14(5): 5179-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c03402] [PMID: 32356654]
[12]
Rana MS, Usman M, Alam MM, Ikram A, Salman M. Overlapping clinical manifestations of COVID-19 with endemic infectious diseases in Pakistan: A looming threat of multiple lethal combinations. Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2021; 11(1): 1873494.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2021.1873494] [PMID: 33537119]
[13]
Salehi M, Ahmadikia K, Mahmoudi S, et al. Oropharyngeal candidiasis in hospitalised COVID-19 patients from Iran: Species identification and antifungal susceptibility pattern. Mycoses 2020; 63(8): 771-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13137] [PMID: 32609906]
[14]
Gebrecherkos T, Gessesse Z, Kebede Y, et al. Effect of co-infection with parasites on severity of COVID-19. MedRxiv 2021.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.02.21250995]
[15]
Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 507-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7] [PMID: 32007143]
[16]
Zhang G, Hu C, Luo L, et al. Clinical features and outcomes of 221 patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. MedRxiv 2020.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.02.20030452]
[17]
Haqqi A, Awan UA, Ali M, Saqib MA, Ahmed H, Afzal MS. COVID‐19 and dengue virus co‐epidemics in Pakistan: A dangerous combina-tion for overburdened healthcare system. J Med Virol 2021; 93(1): 80-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26144] [PMID: 32510175]
[18]
Ayoubzadeh SI, Isabel S, Coomes EA, Morris SK. Enteric fever and COVID-19 co-infection in a teenager returning from Pakistan. J Travel Med 2021; 28(3): taab019.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taab019]
[19]
Ahmad S, Tsagkaris C, Aborode AT, et al. A skeleton in the closet: The implications of COVID-19 on XDR strain of typhoid in Pakistan. Public Health in Practice 2021; 2: 100084.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhip.2021.100084] [PMID: 33521736]
[20]
National Institute of Health Islamabad. Weekly field epidemiology report 2020. Available from: https://www.nih.org.pk/wpcontent/ uploads/2020/09/37-FELTP-Pakistan-Weekly-Epidemiological- Report
[21]
Government of Pakistan. 2021. Pakistan cases details. Available from: https://covid.gov.pk/stats/pakistan
[22]
Wang JG, Cui HR, Tang HB, Deng XL. Gastrointestinal symptoms and fecal nucleic acid testing of children with 2019 coronavirus disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2020; 10(1): 17846.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74913-0] [PMID: 33082472]
[23]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2020. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/burden/preliminary-in-season-estimates.htm
[24]
Ge H, Wang X, Yuan X, et al. The epidemiology and clinical information about COVID-19. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2020; 39(6): 1011-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-020-03874-z] [PMID: 32291542]
[25]
Ma S, Lai X, Chen Z, Tu S, Qin K. Clinical characteristics of critically ill patients co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and the influenza virus in Wuhan, China. Int J Infect Dis 2020; 96: 683-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.068] [PMID: 32470606]
[26]
Khorramdelazad H, Kazemi MH, Najafi A, Keykhaee M, Zolfaghari Emameh R, Falak R. Immunopathological similarities between COVID-19 and influenza: Investigating the consequences of Co-infection. Microb Pathog 2021; 152: 104554.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104554] [PMID: 33157216]
[27]
Marín‐Hernández D, Schwartz RE, Nixon DF. Epidemiological evidence for association between higher influenza vaccine uptake in the elderly and lower COVID‐19 deaths in Italy. J Med Virol 2020; 93(1): 64-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26120] [PMID: 32497290]
[28]
News channel 20. Health experts warn about "twindemic" cases of flu and COVID-19. Available from: https://newschannel20.com/news/ local/health-experts-warn-about-twindemic-cases-of-flu-and-covid-19
[29]
Min JY, Jang YJ. Macrolide therapy in respiratory viral infections. Mediators Inflamm 2012; 2012: 649570.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/649570] [PMID: 22719178]
[30]
Ohe M, Shida H, Jodo S, et al. Macrolide treatment for COVID-19: Will this be the way forward? Biosci Trends 2020; 14(2): 159-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.03058] [PMID: 32249257]
[31]
Jean SS, Lee PI, Hsueh PR. Treatment options for COVID-19: The reality and challenges. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2020; 53(3): 436-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.034] [PMID: 32307245]
[32]
Furuta Y, Gowen BB, Takahashi K, Shiraki K, Smee DF, Barnard DL. Favipiravir (T-705), a novel viral RNA polymerase inhibitor. Antiviral Res 2013; 100(2): 446-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.09.015] [PMID: 24084488]
[33]
Dabbous HM, Abd-Elsalam S, El-Sayed MH, et al. Efficacy of favipiravir in COVID-19 treatment: A multi-center randomized study. Arch Virol 2021; 166(3): 949-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-04956-9] [PMID: 33492523]
[34]
Grant WB, Lahore H, McDonnell SL, et al. Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infec-tions and deaths. Nutrients 2020; 12(4): 988.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12040988] [PMID: 32252338]
[35]
Ozaras R, Cirpin R, Duman H, Duran A, Arslan O, Leblebicioglu H. An open call for influenza vaccination pending the new wave of COVID-19. J Med Virol 2020; 93(1): 172-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26272] [PMID: 32639643]
[36]
Guzman MG, Kouri G. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas: Lessons and challenges. J Clin Virol 2003; 27(1): 1-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1386-6532(03)00010-6] [PMID: 12727523]
[37]
Yan G, Lee CK, Lam LTM, et al. Covert COVID-19 and false-positive dengue serology in Singapore. Lancet Infect Dis 2020; 20(5): 536.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30158-4] [PMID: 32145189]
[38]
Joob B, Wiwanitkit V. COVID-19 can present with a rash and be mistaken for dengue. J Am Acad Dermatol 2020; 82(5): e177.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.03.036] [PMID: 32213305]
[39]
Biswas S, Sukla S. COVID-19 virus infection and transmission are observably less in highly Dengue-endemic countries: Can Dengue vac-cines be “repurposed” to prevent COVID-19? 2020
[http://dx.doi.org/10.31487/j.CEI.2020.02.05]
[40]
Masyeni S, Santoso MS, Widyaningsih PD, et al. Serological cross-reaction and coinfection of dengue and COVID-19 in Asia: Experience from Indonesia. Int J Infect Dis 2021; 102: 152-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.10.043] [PMID: 33115680]
[41]
Miah MA, Husna A. Coinfection, coepidemics of COVID-19, and dengue in dengue-endemic countries: A serious health concern. J Med Virol 2021; 93(1): 161-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26269] [PMID: 32633829]
[42]
World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis report 2013. World Health Organization. 2013. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/ handle/10665/91355 Accessed on: 15th November 2020.
[43]
Zheng W, Wu H, Liu C, et al. Identification of COVID-19 and dengue host factor interaction networks based on integrative bioinformatics analyses. Front Immunol 2021; 12: 707287.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.707287] [PMID: 34394108]
[44]
Comella-Del-Barrio P, De Souza-Galvão ML, Prat-Aymerich C, Domínguez J. Impact of COVID-19 on tuberculosis control. Arch Bronconeumol 2021; 57: 5-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arbres.2020.11.016] [PMID: 34629626]
[45]
Yang H, Lu S. COVID-19 and tuberculosis. J Transl Int Med 2020; 8(2): 59-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jtim-2020-0010] [PMID: 32983927]
[46]
McQuaid CF, McCreesh N, Read JM, et al. The potential impact of COVID-19-related disruption on tuberculosis burden. Eur Respir J 2020; 56(2): 2001718.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01718-2020] [PMID: 32513784]
[47]
Saunders MJ, Evans CA. COVID-19, tuberculosis and poverty: Preventing a perfect storm. Eur Respir J 2020; 56(1): 2001348.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01348-2020] [PMID: 32444399]
[48]
Tian J, Yuan X, Xiao J, et al. Clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity in patients with cancer in Wuhan, China: A multicentre, retrospective, cohort study. Lancet Oncol 2020; 21(7): 893-903.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30309-0] [PMID: 32479790]
[49]
Echeverría G, Espinoza W, de Waard JH. How TB and COVID-19 compare: An opportunity to integrate both control programmes. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2020; 24(9): 971-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.20.0417] [PMID: 33156768]
[50]
Zhao W, Zhong Z, Xie X, Yu Q, Liu J. Relation between chest CT findings and clinical conditions of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia: A multicenter study. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2020; 214(5): 1072-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.20.22976] [PMID: 32125873]
[51]
Sy KTL, Haw NJL, Uy J. Previous and active tuberculosis increases risk of death and prolongs recovery in patients with COVID-19. Infect Dis (Lond) 2020; 52(12): 902-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2020.1806353] [PMID: 32808838]
[52]
Gao Y, Liu M, Chen Y, Shi S, Geng J, Tian J. Association between tuberculosis and COVID-19 severity and mortality: A rapid systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Virol 2021; 93(1): 194-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26311] [PMID: 32687228]
[53]
Tadolini M, García-García JM, Blanc FX, et al. On tuberculosis and COVID-19 co-infection. Eur Respir J 2020; 56(2): 2002328.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02328-2020] [PMID: 32586888]
[54]
Alagna R, Besozzi G, Codecasa LR, et al. Celebrating world tuberculosis day at the time of COVID-19. Eur Respir J 2020; 55(4): 2000650.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00650-2020] [PMID: 32241828]
[55]
Getnet F, Demissie M, Worku A, et al. Delay in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis increases the risk of pulmonary cavitation in pastoral-ist setting of Ethiopia. BMC Pulm Med 2019; 19(1): 201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-019-0971-y] [PMID: 31694601]
[56]
Singh A, Prasad R, Gupta A, Das K, Gupta N. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 and pulmonary tuberculosis: Convergence can be fatal. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2020; 90(3)
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2020.1368] [PMID: 32697060]
[57]
Visca D, Ong CWM, Tiberi S, et al. Tuberculosis and COVID-19 interaction: A review of biological, clinical and public health effects. Pulmonology 2021; 27(2): 151-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pulmoe.2020.12.012] [PMID: 33547029]
[58]
Sarialioğlu F, Belen FB, Hayran KM. Hepatitis A susceptibility parallels high COVID-19 mortality. Turk J Med Sci 2021; 51(1): 382-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/sag-2007-133] [PMID: 32718125]
[59]
Liu J, Zhang S, Wang Q, et al. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in 2 million men aged 21-49 years in rural China: A popula-tion-based, cross-sectional study. Lancet Infect Dis 2016; 16(1): 80-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00218-2] [PMID: 26268687]
[60]
Yuen MF, Chen DS, Dusheiko GM, et al. Hepatitis B virus infection. N Rev Dis Pimers 2018; 4(1): 1-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2018.35]
[61]
Cunningham C. Accelerating the elimination of viral hepatitis for Indigenous peoples. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 4(2): 93-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(18)30412-6] [PMID: 30647015]
[62]
Zou X, Fang M, Li S, et al. Characteristics of liver function in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV coinfection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021; 19(3): 597-603.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.06.017] [PMID: 32553907]
[63]
Wang Y, Liu S, Liu H, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection of the liver directly contributes to hepatic impairment in patients with COVID-19. J Hepatol 2020; 73(4): 807-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.05.002] [PMID: 32437830]
[64]
Portincasa P, Krawczyk M, Smyk W, Lammert F, Di Ciaula A. COVID-19 and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Two intersecting pandem-ics. Eur J Clin Invest 2020; 50(10): e13338.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13338] [PMID: 32589264]
[65]
Chen L, Huang S, Yang J, et al. Clinical characteristics in patients with SARS-CoV-2/HBV co-infection. J Viral Hepat 2020; 27(12): 1504-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13362] [PMID: 32668494]
[66]
Wu J, Yu J, Shi X, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 70 cases of coronavirus disease and concomitant hepatitis B virus infection: A multicentre descriptive study. J Viral Hepat 2021; 28(1): 80-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13404] [PMID: 32929826]
[67]
Alqahtani SA, Buti M. COVID-19 and hepatitis B infection. Antivir Ther 2020; 25(8): 389-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3382] [PMID: 33616549]
[68]
Pley CM, McNaughton AL, Matthews PC, Lourenço J. The global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. BMJ Glob Health 2021; 6(1): e004275.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-004275] [PMID: 33402334]
[69]
Indolfi G, Easterbrook P, Dusheiko G, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection in children and adolescents. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 4(6): 477-87.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30046-9] [PMID: 30982721]
[70]
Stanaway JD, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, et al. The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 2016; 388(10049): 1081-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30579-7] [PMID: 27394647]
[71]
Fix OK, Hameed B, Fontana RJ, et al. Clinical best practice advice for hepatology and liver transplant providers during the COVID-19 pan-demic: AASLD expert panel consensus statement. Hepatology 2020; 72(1): 287-304.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31281] [PMID: 32298473]
[72]
Xu L, Liu J, Lu M, Yang D, Zheng X. Liver injury during highly pathogenic human coronavirus infections. Liver Int 2020; 40(5): 998-1004.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14435] [PMID: 32170806]
[73]
Boettler T, Newsome PN, Mondelli MU, et al. Care of patients with liver disease during the COVID-19 pandemic: EASL-ESCMID position paper. JHEP Rep 2020; 2(3): 100113.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhepr.2020.100113] [PMID: 32289115]
[74]
Wong GL, Wong VW, Thompson A, et al. Management of patients with liver derangement during the COVID-19 pandemic: An Asia-Pacific position statement. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020; 5(8): 776-87.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30190-4] [PMID: 32585136]
[75]
El-Bendary M, Abd-Elsalam S, Elbaz T, et al. Efficacy of combined Sofosbuvir and Daclatasvir in the treatment of COVID-19 patients with pneumonia: A multicenter Egyptian study. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2021; 1-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2021.1950532] [PMID: 34225541]
[76]
Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Leist SR, et al. Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon beta against MERS-CoV. Nat Commun 2020; 11(1): 222.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13940-6] [PMID: 31924756]
[77]
Brown AJ, Won JJ, Graham RL, et al. Broad spectrum antiviral remdesivir inhibits human endemic and zoonotic deltacoronaviruses with a highly divergent RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Antiviral Res 2019; 169: 104541.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.104541] [PMID: 31233808]
[78]
Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res 2020; 30(3): 269-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0] [PMID: 32020029]
[79]
Beigel JH, Tomashek KM, Dodd LE, et al. Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19-preliminary report. N Engl J Med 2020; 383(19): 1813-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2007764] [PMID: 32445440]
[80]
Abd-Elsalam S, Ahmed OA, Mansour NO, et al. Remdesivir efficacy in COVID-19 treatment: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021; 1.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.21-0606]
[81]
Blach S, Kondili LA, Aghemo A, et al. Impact of COVID-19 on global HCV elimination efforts. J Hepatol 2021; 74(1): 31-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.07.042] [PMID: 32777322]
[82]
Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(18): 1708-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2002032] [PMID: 32109013]
[83]
Paltauf A. Mycosis mucorina Archives for pathological anatomy and physiology and for clinical medicine 1885; 102(3): 543-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01932420]
[84]
Baker RD. Mucormycosis: A new disease? J Am Med Assoc 1957; 163(10): 805-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1957.02970450007003] [PMID: 13405736]
[85]
Eucker J, Sezer O, Graf B, Possinger K. Mucormycoses. Mycoses 2001; 44(7-8): 253-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0507.2001.00656.x] [PMID: 11714058]
[86]
Singh AK, Singh R, Joshi SR, Misra A. Mucormycosis in COVID-19: A systematic review of cases reported worldwide and in India. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021; 15(4): 102146.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2021.05.019] [PMID: 34192610]
[87]
Mulki R, Masab M, Eiger G, Perloff S. Lethargy and vision loss: Successful management of rhinocerebral mucormycosis. BMJ Case Rep 2016; 2016: bcr2016215855.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2016-215855] [PMID: 27256997]
[88]
Nawaz S, Saleem M. Mucormycosis, the black fungus alarming coinfections in COVID-19 patients. J Microbiol Mol Gen 2021; 2(1): 15-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.52700/jmmg.v2i1.20]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy