Generic placeholder image

Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1568-0266
ISSN (Online): 1873-4294

Research Article

Decreasing Tryptophan and Increasing Neopterin Plasma Levels During Pregnancy are Associated with High First Trimester Porphyromonas gingivalis K-Serotype IgG Serointensity in a Cohort of Hispanic Women

Author(s): Teodor T. Postolache*, Sanjaya K. Upadhyaya, Anna M. Spector, Iqra Mohyuddin, Niel Constantine, Robert K. Ernst, Abhishek Wadhawan, Samia Valeria Ozorio Dutra, Aline Dagdag, Hina Makkar, Christopher A. Lowry, Faisal Akram, Dietmar Fuchs, Lisa A. Brenner, Maureen W. Groer and Mark A. Reynolds

Volume 22, Issue 25, 2022

Published on: 08 June, 2022

Page: [2126 - 2144] Pages: 19

DOI: 10.2174/1568026622666220404115543

Price: $65


Background: Immune activation or high levels of stress may lead to increased metabolism of tryptophan during pregnancy. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), the “keystone” periodontal pathogen, induces immune and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activation. Thus, we hypothesized that larger gestational decreases in tryptophan and elevations in neopterin and kynurenine would occur in pregnant women with elevated IgG antibodies to Pg capsular (K) serotypes.

Methods: Venous blood of 52 Hispanic pregnant women with a mean age (SD) of 31.8 (5.9) years was sampled once per trimester of pregnancy (V1, V2, V3), and plasma was obtained and stored. ELISAs were used to measure Pg capsular (K) serotype IgG serointensity (V1 only) and neopterin levels (V1-V3). Tryptophan and kynurenine (V1-V3) were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. The participants having IgG serointensity for any of the seven Pg K serotypes in the highest quartile were defined as the “High PgK_IgG” group and those having IgG serointensity for all K serotypes in the lowest three quartiles were defined as the “Low PgK_IgG” group. Statistics included multivariable linear and nonparametric methods.

Results: Significant decreases in plasma tryptophan levels and increases in neopterin during gestation were found in “High PgK_IgG” women but not in “Low PgK_IgG” women. Kynurenine changes were not significantly different between the two groups.

Conclusion: If replicated in larger studies and further characterized clinically, radiologically, and microbiologically, our results may potentially lead to novel interventional targets, as well as the development of more complete prognostic and predictive interactive biomarkers for adverse obstetrical outcomes and peripartum depression, and their prevention.

Keywords: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Pregnancy, Kynurenine, Tryptophan, Neopterin, Kynurenine pathway, Porphyromonas gingivalis K-Serotype, IgG Serointensity, Hispanic.

« Previous
Graphical Abstract
WHO. Care of the preterm and low-birth-weight newborn, 2021. Available from:
Vogel, J.P.; Chawanpaiboon, S.; Moller, A.B.; Watananirun, K.; Bonet, M.; Lumbiganon, P. The global epidemiology of preterm birth. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Obstet. Gynaecol., 2018, 52, 3-12.
[] [PMID: 29779863]
Patel, R.M. Short- and long-term outcomes for extremely preterm infants. Am. J. Perinatol., 2016, 33(3), 318-328.
[] [PMID: 26799967]
Natarajan, G.; Shankaran, S. Short- and long-term outcomes of moderate and late preterm infants. Am. J. Perinatol., 2016, 33(3), 305-317.
[] [PMID: 26788789]
Mwaniki, M.K.; Atieno, M.; Lawn, J.E.; Newton, C.R. Long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes after intrauterine and neonatal insults: A systematic review. Lancet, 2012, 379(9814), 445-452.
[] [PMID: 22244654]
Institute of Medicine Committee on Understanding Premature B. Assuring Healthy O. The National Academies Collection: Reports fund-ed by National Institutes of Health. Behrman RE, Butler AS, e s; Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2007.
Vázquez-Boland, J.A.; Krypotou, E.; Scortti, M. Listeria placental infection. MBio, 2017, 8(3), e00949-e17.
[] [PMID: 28655824]
Gomez, G.B.; Kamb, M.L.; Newman, L.M.; Mark, J.; Broutet, N.; Hawkes, S.J. Untreated maternal syphilis and adverse outcomes of pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Bull. World Health Organ., 2013, 91(3), 217-226.
[] [PMID: 23476094]
Li, M.; Li, S.; He, Q.; Liang, Z.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, L. Hepatitis E-related adverse pregnancy outcomes and their prevention by hepatitis E vaccine in a rabbit model. Emerg. Microbes Infect., 2019, 8(1), 1066-1075.
[] [PMID: 31339458]
Kledmanee, K.; Liabsuetrakul, T.; Sretrirutchai, S. Seropositivities against brucellosis, coxiellosis, and toxoplasmosis and associated factors in pregnant women with adverse pregnancy outcomes: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One, 2019, 14(5), e0216652.
[] [PMID: 31071166]
Teshome, A.; Yitayeh, A. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: Systematic review. Pan Afr. Med. J., 2016, 24, 215.
[] [PMID: 27800070]
Madianos, P.N.; Bobetsis, Y.A.; Offenbacher, S. Adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) and periodontal disease: Pathogenic mechanisms. J. Periodontol., 2013, 84(4)(Suppl.), S170-S180.
[PMID: 23631577]
Figuero, E.; Han, Y.W.; Furuichi, Y. Periodontal diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes: Mechanisms. Periodontol. 2000, 2020, 83(1), 175-188.
[] [PMID: 32385886]
Page, R.C.; Eke, P.I. Case definitions for use in population-based surveillance of periodontitis. J. Periodontol., 2007, 78(7)(Suppl.), 1387-1399.
Armitage, G.C. Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions. Ann. Periodontol., 1999, 4(1), 1-6.
[] [PMID: 10863370]
Health AIo. Welfare. Oral health and dental care in Australia: Key facts and figures 2012; AIHW: Canberra, 2013.
Krejci, C.B.; Bissada, N.F. Women’s health issues and their relationship to periodontitis. J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 2002, 133(3), 323-329.
[] [PMID: 11934187]
Figuero, E.; Carrillo-de-Albornoz, A.; Martín, C.; Tobías, A.; Herrera, D. Effect of pregnancy on gingival inflammation in systemically healthy women: A systematic review. J. Clin. Periodontol., 2013, 40(5), 457-473.
[] [PMID: 23557432]
Soory, M. Hormonal factors in periodontal disease. Dent. Update, 2000, 27(8), 380-383.
[] [PMID: 11218530]
Sooriyamoorthy, M.; Gower, D.B. Hormonal influences on gingival tissue: Relationship to periodontal disease. J. Clin. Periodontol., 1989, 16(4), 201-208.
[] [PMID: 2654195]
Güncü, G.N.; Tözüm, T.F.; Cağlayan, F. Effects of endogenous sex hormones on the periodontium--review of literature. Aust. Dent. J., 2005, 50(3), 138-145.
Xiong, X.; Buekens, P.; Fraser, W.D.; Beck, J.; Offenbacher, S. Periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes: A systematic re-view. BJOG, 2006, 113(2), 135-143.
[] [PMID: 16411989]
Offenbacher, S.; Boggess, K.A.; Murtha, A.P.; Jared, H.L.; Lieff, S.; McKaig, R.G.; Mauriello, S.M.; Moss, K.L.; Beck, J.D. Progressive periodontal disease and risk of very preterm delivery. Obstet. Gynecol., 2006, 107(1), 29-36.
[] [PMID: 16394036]
Andonova, I.; Iliev, V.; Živković, N.; Sušič, E.; Bego, I.; Kotevska, V. Can oral anaerobic bacteria cause adverse pregnancy outcomes? Prilozi (Makedon. Akad. Nauk. Umet. Odd. Med. Nauki), 2015, 36(1), 137-143.
[] [PMID: 26076783]
Sharma, R.; Maimanuku, L.R.; Morse, Z.; Pack, A.R. Preterm low birth weights associated with periodontal disease in the Fiji Islands. Int. Dent. J., 2007, 57(4), 257-260.
[] [PMID: 17849684]
Saddki, N.; Bachok, N.; Hussain, N.H.; Zainudin, S.L.; Sosroseno, W. The association between maternal periodontitis and low birth weight infants among Malay women. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol., 2008, 36(4), 296-304.
Rakoto-Alson, S.; Tenenbaum, H.; Davideau, J-L. Periodontal diseases, preterm births, and low birth weight: Findings from a homoge-neous cohort of women in Madagascar. J. Periodontol., 2010, 81(2), 205-213.
[] [PMID: 20151798]
Rajapakse, P.S.; Nagarathne, M.; Chandrasekra, K.B.; Dasanayake, A.P. Periodontal disease and prematurity among non-smoking Sri Lankan women. J. Dent. Res., 2005, 84(3), 274-277.
[] [PMID: 15723870]
Pitiphat, W.; Merchant, A. The association between maternal periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes among poor Chilean women. J. Dent. Res., 2002, 81(8), 516-517.
[] [PMID: 12147737]
Jeffcoat, M.K.; Geurs, N.C.; Reddy, M.S.; Cliver, S.P.; Goldenberg, R.L.; Hauth, J.C. Periodontal infection and preterm birth: Results of a prospective study. J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 2001, 132(7), 875-880.
[] [PMID: 11480640]
Agueda, A.; Ramón, J.M.; Manau, C.; Guerrero, A.; Echeverría, J.J. Periodontal disease as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes: A prospective cohort study. J. Clin. Periodontol., 2008, 35(1), 16-22.
Offenbacher, S.; Katz, V.; Fertik, G.; Collins, J.; Boyd, D.; Maynor, G.; McKaig, R.; Beck, J. Periodontal infection as a possible risk fac-tor for preterm low birth weight. J. Periodontol., 1996, 67(10s)(Suppl. 10S), 1103-1113.
Srinivas, S.K.; Sammel, M.D.; Stamilio, D.M.; Clothier, B.; Jeffcoat, M.K.; Parry, S.; Macones, G.A.; Elovitz, M.A.; Metlay, J. Periodon-tal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes: Is there an association? Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 2009, 200(5), 497.e1-497.e8.
[] [PMID: 19375568]
Moore, S.; Ide, M.; Coward, P.Y.; Randhawa, M.; Borkowska, E.; Baylis, R. A prospective study to investigate the relationship between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome. Br. Dent. J., 2004, 197, 251-258.
Iheozor-Ejiofor, Z.; Middleton, P.; Esposito, M.; Glenny, A.M. Treating periodontal disease for preventing adverse birth outcomes in pregnant women. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., 2017, 6(6), CD005297.
Ide, M.; Papapanou, P.N. Epidemiology of association between maternal periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes--systematic review. J. Clin. Periodontol., 2013, 40(Suppl. 14), S181-S194.
[] [PMID: 23627328]
Corbella, S.; Taschieri, S.; Francetti, L.; De Siena, F.; Del Fabbro, M. Periodontal disease as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy out-comes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies. Odontology, 2012, 100(2), 232-240.
[] [PMID: 21739194]
Konopka, T.; Paradowska-Stolarz, A. Periodontitis and risk of preterm birth and low birth weight--a meta-analysis. Ginekol. Pol., 2012, 83(6), 446-453.
[PMID: 22880465]
Manrique-Corredor, E.J.; Orozco-Beltran, D.; Lopez-Pineda, A.; Quesada, J.A.; Gil-Guillen, V.F.; Carratala-Munuera, C. Maternal perio-dontitis and preterm birth: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol., 2019, 47(3), 243-251.
Ebersole, J.L.; Holt, S.C.; Cappelli, D. Periodontitis in pregnant baboons: Systemic inflammation and adaptive immune responses and preg-nancy outcomes in a baboon model. J. Periodontal Res., 2014, 49(2), 226-236.
Galloway, C.E. Focal infection. Am. J. Surg., 1931, 14(3), 643-645.
Socransky, S.S.; Haffajee, A.D. Periodontal microbial ecology. Periodontol. 2000, 2005, 38(1), 135-187.
[] [PMID: 15853940]
Verma, R.K.; Bhattacharyya, I.; Sevilla, A.; Lieberman, I.; Pola, S.; Nair, M.; Wallet, S.M.; Aukhil, I.; Kesavalu, L. Virulence of major periodontal pathogens and lack of humoral immune protection in a rat model of periodontal disease. Oral Dis., 2010, 16(7), 686-695.
[] [PMID: 20846155]
Göhler, A.; Hetzer, A.; Holtfreter, B.; Geisel, M.H.; Schmidt, C.O.; Steinmetz, I.; Kocher, T. Quantitative molecular detection of putative periodontal pathogens in clinically healthy and periodontally diseased subjects. PLoS One, 2014, 9(7), e99244.
[] [PMID: 25029268]
Carrouel, F.; Viennot, S.; Santamaria, J.; Veber, P.; Bourgeois, D. Quantitative molecular detection of 19 major pathogens in the interden-tal biofilm of periodontally healthy young adults. Front. Microbiol., 2016, 7, 840.
[] [PMID: 27313576]
Usin, M.M.; Menso, J.; Rodríguez, V.I.; González, A.; Tabares, S.; Parodi, R.; Sembaj, A. Association between maternal periodontitis and preterm and/or low birth weight infants in normal pregnancies. J. Matern. Fetal Neonatal Med., 2016, 29(1), 115-119.
[] [PMID: 25394610]
Santa Cruz, I.; Herrera, D.; Martin, C.; Herrero, A.; Sanz, M. Association between periodontal status and pre-term and/or low-birth weight in Spain: Clinical and microbiological parameters. J. Periodontal Res., 2013, 48(4), 443-451.
[] [PMID: 23083427]
Cobb, C.M.; Kelly, P.J.; Williams, K.B.; Babbar, S.; Angolkar, M.; Derman, R.J. The oral microbiome and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Int. J. Womens Health, 2017, 9, 551-559.
[] [PMID: 28848365]
Wadhawan, A.; Reynolds, M.A.; Makkar, H.; Scott, A.J.; Potocki, E.; Hoisington, A.J.; Brenner, L.A.; Dagdag, A.; Lowry, C.A.; Dwivedi, Y.; Postolache, T.T. Periodontal pathogens and neuropsychiatric health. Curr. Top. Med. Chem., 2020, 20(15), 1353-1397.
[] [PMID: 31924157]
Hajishengallis, G.; Liang, S.; Payne, M.A.; Hashim, A.; Jotwani, R.; Eskan, M.A.; McIntosh, M.L.; Alsam, A.; Kirkwood, K.L.; Lambris, J.D.; Darveau, R.P.; Curtis, M.A. Low-abundance biofilm species orchestrates inflammatory periodontal disease through the commensal microbiota and complement. Cell Host Microbe, 2011, 10(5), 497-506.
[] [PMID: 22036469]
Hajishengallis, G.; Lamont, R.J. Breaking bad: Manipulation of the host response by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Eur. J. Immunol., 2014, 44(2), 328-338.
[] [PMID: 24338806]
Yang, H.W.; Huang, Y.F.; Chou, M.Y. Occurrence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythensis in periodontally diseased and healthy subjects. J. Periodontol., 2004, 75(8), 1077-1083.
[] [PMID: 15455734]
Hwang, A.M.; Stoupel, J.; Celenti, R.; Demmer, R.T.; Papapanou, P.N. Serum antibody responses to periodontal microbiota in chronic and aggressive periodontitis: A postulate revisited. J. Periodontol., 2014, 85(4), 592-600.
[] [PMID: 23725029]
Schmidt, J.; Jentsch, H.; Stingu, C.S.; Sack, U. General immune status and oral microbiology in patients with different forms of periodon-titis and healthy control subjects. PLoS One, 2014, 9(10), e109187.
[] [PMID: 25299619]
Moore, W.E.; Moore, L.H.; Ranney, R.R.; Smibert, R.M.; Burmeister, J.A.; Schenkein, H.A. The microflora of periodontal sites showing active destructive progression. J. Clin. Periodontol., 1991, 18(10), 729-739.
[] [PMID: 1752997]
Mahanonda, R.; Seymour, G.J.; Good, M.F.; Powell, L.W.; Halliday, J.W. Effect of initial treatment of chronic inflammatory periodontal dis-ease on the frequency of peripheral blood T‐lymphocytes specific to periodontopathic bacteria. Oral Microbiol. Immunol., 1991, 6(4), 221-227.
Casarin, R.C.; Ribeiro, E.P.; Mariano, F.S.; Nociti, F.H., Jr; Casati, M.Z.; Gonçalves, R.B. Levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomi-tans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, inflammatory cytokines and species-specific immunoglobulin G in generalized aggressive and chronic periodontitis. J. Periodontal Res., 2010, 45(5), 635-642.
[] [PMID: 20546109]
Califano, J.V.; Best, A.M.; Schenkein, H.A.; Tew, J.G.; Schifferle, R.E. Gunsolley, JC Antibody reactive with Porphyromonas gingivalis sero-types K1-6 in adult and generalized early-onset periodontitis. J. Periodontol., 1999, 70(7), 730-735.
Laine, M.L.; Appelmelk, B.J.; van Winkelhoff, A.J. Prevalence and distribution of six capsular serotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis patients. J. Dent. Res., 1997, 76(12), 1840-1844.
[] [PMID: 9390477]
Lamont, R.J.; Jenkinson, H.F. Life below the gum line: Pathogenic mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev., 1998, 62(4), 1244-1263.
[] [PMID: 9841671]
Hajishengallis, G.; Darveau, R.P.; Curtis, M.A. The keystone-pathogen hypothesis. Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 2012, 10(10), 717-725.
[] [PMID: 22941505]
Amano, A.; Nakagawa, I.; Okahashi, N.; Hamada, N. Variations of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae in relation to microbial pathogen-esis. J. Periodontal Res., 2004, 39(2), 136-142.
[] [PMID: 15009522]
Sheets, S.M.; Potempa, J.; Travis, J.; Casiano, C.A.; Fletcher, H.M. Gingipains from Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 induce cell adhesion molecule cleavage and apoptosis in endothelial cells. Infect. Immun., 2005, 73(3), 1543-1552.
[] [PMID: 15731052]
Guo, Y.; Nguyen, K.A.; Potempa, J. Dichotomy of gingipains action as virulence factors: From cleaving substrates with the precision of a surgeon’s knife to a meat chopper-like brutal degradation of proteins. Periodontol. 2000, 2010, 54(1), 15-44.
[] [PMID: 20712631]
Genco, C.A.; Odusanya, B.M.; Potempa, J.; Mikolajczyk-Pawlinska, J.; Travis, J. A peptide domain on gingipain R which confers immunity against Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in mice. Infect. Immun., 1998, 66(9), 4108-4114.
Singh, A.; Wyant, T.; Anaya-Bergman, C.; Aduse-Opoku, J.; Brunner, J.; Laine, M.L.; Curtis, M.A.; Lewis, J.P. The capsule of Porphy-romonas gingivalis leads to a reduction in the host inflammatory response, evasion of phagocytosis, and increase in virulence. Infect. Immun., 2011, 79(11), 4533-4542.
[] [PMID: 21911459]
Irshad, M.; van der Reijden, W.A.; Crielaard, W.; Laine, M.L. In vitro invasion and survival of Porphyromonas gingivalis in gingival fibroblasts; role of the capsule. Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz.), 2012, 60(6), 469-476.
[] [PMID: 22949096]
Brunner, J.; Wittink, F.R.; Jonker, M.J.; de Jong, M.; Breit, T.M.; Laine, M.L.; de Soet, J.J.; Crielaard, W. The core genome of the anaero-bic oral pathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. BMC Microbiol., 2010, 10(1), 252.
[] [PMID: 20920246]
Bostanci, N.; Belibasakis, G.N. Porphyromonas gingivalis: An invasive and evasive opportunistic oral pathogen. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 2012, 333(1), 1-9.
[] [PMID: 22530835]
Laine, M.L.; Van Winkelhoff, A.J.; Appelmelk, B.J. Novel polysaccharide capsular serotypes in Porphyromonas gingivalis. J. Periodontal Res., 1996, 31(4), 278-284.
Ye, C.; Kobayashi, H.; Katagiri, S.; Miyasaka, N.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kuraji, R.; Izumi, Y. The relationship between the anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis immunoglobulin G subclass antibody and small for gestational age delivery: A longitudinal study in pregnant Japanese women. Int. Dent. J., 2020, 70(4), 296-302.
[] [PMID: 32185796]
León, R.; Silva, N.; Ovalle, A.; Chaparro, A.; Ahumada, A.; Gajardo, M.; Martinez, M.; Gamonal, J. Detection of Porphyromonas gingi-valis in the amniotic fluid in pregnant women with a diagnosis of threatened premature labor. J. Periodontol., 2007, 78(7), 1249-1255.
[] [PMID: 17608580]
Ibrahim, M.I.; Abdelhafeez, M.A.; Ellaithy, M.I.; Salama, A.H.; Amin, A.S.; Eldakrory, H.; Elhadad, N.I. Can Porphyromonas gingivalis be a novel aetiology for recurrent miscarriage? Eur. J. Contracept. Reprod. Health Care, 2015, 20(2), 119-127.
[] [PMID: 25328050]
Kotz, J.; Chegini, N.; Shiverick, K.T. Lamont, RJ Localization of P. gingivalis in preterm delivery placenta. J. Dent. Res., 2009, 88(6), 575-578.
Ye, C.; Katagiri, S.; Miyasaka, N.; Kobayashi, H.; Khemwong, T.; Nagasawa, T. The periodontopathic bacteria in placenta, saliva and subgingival plaque of threatened preterm labor and preterm low birth weight cases: A longitudinal study in Japanese pregnant women. Clin. Oral Investig., 2020, 24(12), 4261-4270.
Aagaard, K.; Ma, J.; Antony, K.M.; Ganu, R.; Petrosino, J.; Versalovic, J. The placenta harbors a unique microbiome. Sci. Transl. Med., 2014, 6(237), 237ra65.
[] [PMID: 24848255]
Pérez-Chaparro, P.J.; Gracieux, P.; Lafaurie, G.I.; Donnio, P.Y.; Bonnaure-Mallet, M. Genotypic characterization of Porphyromonas gingivalis isolated from subgingival plaque and blood sample in positive bacteremia subjects with periodontitis. J. Clin. Periodontol., 2008, 35(9), 748-753.
[] [PMID: 18662301]
Lockhart, P.B.; Brennan, M.T.; Sasser, H.C.; Fox, P.C.; Paster, B.J.; Bahrani-Mougeot, F.K. Bacteremia associated with toothbrushing and dental extraction. Circulation, 2008, 117(24), 3118-3125.
[] [PMID: 18541739]
Kinane, D.F.; Riggio, M.P.; Walker, K.F.; MacKenzie, D.; Shearer, B. Bacteraemia following periodontal procedures. J. Clin. Periodontol., 2005, 32(7), 708-713.
[] [PMID: 15966875]
Slaney, J.M.; Gallagher, A.; Aduse-Opoku, J.; Pell, K.; Curtis, M.A. Mechanisms of resistance of Porphyromonas gingivalis to killing by serum complement. Infect. Immun., 2006, 74(9), 5352-5361.
[] [PMID: 16926430]
Mydel, P.; Takahashi, Y.; Yumoto, H.; Sztukowska, M.; Kubica, M.; Gibson, F.C., III; Kurtz, D.M., Jr; Travis, J.; Collins, L.V.; Nguyen, K.A.; Genco, C.A.; Potempa, J. Roles of the host oxidative immune response and bacterial antioxidant rubrerythrin during Porphyromo-nas gingivalis infection. PLoS Pathog., 2006, 2(7), e76.
[] [PMID: 16895445]
Amano, A.; Ishimoto, T.; Tamagawa, H.; Shizukuishi, S. Role of superoxide dismutase in resistance of Porphyromonas gingivalis to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infect. Immun., 1992, 60(2), 712-714.
[] [PMID: 1309723]
Rodrigues, P.H.; Reyes, L.; Chadda, A.S.; Bélanger, M.; Wallet, S.M.; Akin, D.; Dunn, W., Jr; Progulske-Fox, A. Porphyromonas gingi-valis strain specific interactions with human coronary artery endothelial cells: A comparative study. PLoS One, 2012, 7(12), e52606.
[] [PMID: 23300720]
Ishikawa, M.; Yoshida, K.; Okamura, H.; Ochiai, K.; Takamura, H.; Fujiwara, N.; Ozaki, K. Oral Porphyromonas gingivalis translocates to the liver and regulates hepatic glycogen synthesis through the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2013, 1832(12), 2035-2043.
[] [PMID: 23899607]
Dominy, S.S.; Lynch, C.; Ermini, F.; Benedyk, M.; Marczyk, A.; Konradi, A.; Nguyen, M.; Haditsch, U.; Raha, D.; Griffin, C.; Holsinger, L.J.; Arastu-Kapur, S.; Kaba, S.; Lee, A.; Ryder, M.I.; Potempa, B.; Mydel, P.; Hellvard, A.; Adamowicz, K.; Hasturk, H.; Walker, G.D.; Reynolds, E.C.; Faull, R.L.M.; Curtis, M.A.; Dragunow, M.; Potempa, J. Porphyromonas gingivalis in Alzheimer’s disease brains: Evi-dence for disease causation and treatment with small-molecule inhibitors. Sci. Adv., 2019, 5(1), eaau3333.
[] [PMID: 30746447]
Cassini, M.A.; Pilloni, A.; Condò, S.G.; Vitali, L.A.; Pasquantonio, G.; Cerroni, L. Periodontal bacteria in the genital tract: Are they relat-ed to adverse pregnancy outcome? Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol., 2013, 26(4), 931-939.
[] [PMID: 24355228]
Barak, S.; Oettinger-Barak, O.; Machtei, E.E.; Sprecher, H.; Ohel, G. Evidence of periopathogenic microorganisms in placentas of women with preeclampsia. J. Periodontol., 2007, 78(4), 670-676.
[] [PMID: 17397314]
Riewe, S.D.; Mans, J.J.; Hirano, T.; Katz, J.; Shiverick, K.T.; Brown, T.A. Human trophoblast responses to Porphyromonas gingivalis infection.Mol. Oral Microbiol; , 2010, pp. 252-259.
Konishi, H.; Urabe, S.; Miyoshi, H.; Teraoka, Y.; Maki, T.; Furusho, H. Fetal membrane inflammation induces preterm birth via toll-like receptor 2 in mice with chronic gingivitis. Reprod. Sci., 2019, 26(7), 869-878.
Takii, R.; Kadowaki, T.; Tsukuba, T.; Yamamoto, K. Inhibition of gingipains prevents Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced preterm birth and fetal death in pregnant mice. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2018, 824, 48-56.
[] [PMID: 29409911]
Inaba, H.; Kuboniwa, M.; Sugita, H.; Lamont, R.J.; Amano, A. Identification of signaling pathways mediating cell cycle arrest and apop-tosis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in human trophoblasts. Infect. Immun., 2012, 80(8), 2847-2857.
[] [PMID: 22689813]
Papapanou, P.N. Systemic effects of periodontitis: Lessons learned from research on atherosclerotic vascular disease and adverse preg-nancy outcomes. Int. Dent. J., 2015, 65(6), 283-291.
[] [PMID: 26388299]
Kim, J.; Amar, S. Periodontal disease and systemic conditions: A bidirectional relationship. Odontology, 2006, 94(1), 10-21.
[] [PMID: 16998613]
Ye, C; Xia, Z; Tang, J; Khemwong, T; Kapila, Y; Kuraji, R Unculturable and culturable periodontal-related bacteria are associated with periodontal inflammation during pregnancy and with preterm low birth weight delivery. Sci Rep., 2020, 10(1), N.PAG..
Ao, M.; Miyauchi, M.; Furusho, H.; Inubushi, T.; Kitagawa, M.; Nagasaki, A.; Sakamoto, S.; Kozai, K.; Takata, T. Dental infection of Porphyromonas gingivalis induces preterm birth in mice. PLoS One, 2015, 10(8), e0137249.
[] [PMID: 26322971]
Gómez, L.A.; De Avila, J.; Castillo, D.M.; Montenegro, D.A.; Trujillo, T.G.; Suárez, L.J.; Lafaurie, G.I. Porphyromonas gingivalis pla-cental atopobiosis and inflammatory responses in women with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Front. Microbiol., 2020, 11, 591626.
[] [PMID: 33343532]
Offenbacher, S.; Jared, H.L.; O’Reilly, P.G.; Wells, S.R.; Salvi, G.E.; Lawrence, H.P.; Socransky, S.S.; Beck, J.D. Potential pathogenic mechanisms of periodontitis associated pregnancy complications. Ann. Periodontol., 1998, 3(1), 233-250.
[] [PMID: 9722707]
Miyauchi, M.; Ao, M.; Furusho, H.; Chea, C.; Nagasaki, A.; Sakamoto, S.; Ando, T.; Inubushi, T.; Kozai, K.; Takata, T. Galectin-3 plays an important role in preterm birth caused by dental infection of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Sci. Rep., 2018, 8(1), 2867.
[] [PMID: 29434245]
Müller, M.M.; Curtius, H.C.; Herold, M.; Huber, C.H. Neopterin in clinical practice. Clin. Chim. Acta, 1991, 201(1-2), 1-16.
[] [PMID: 1790613]
González, N.T.; Otali, E.; Machanda, Z.; Muller, M.N.; Wrangham, R.; Thompson, M.E. Urinary markers of oxidative stress respond to infection and late-life in wild chimpanzees. PLoS One, 2020, 15(9), e0238066.
[] [PMID: 32916689]
Andert, S.E.; Müller, M.M. Neopterin: Biochemistry and clinical usefulness. J. Int. Fed. Clin. Chem., 1995, 7(2), 70-76.
[PMID: 10172462]
Andert, S.E.; Griesmacher, A.; Zuckermann, A.; Müller, M.M. Neopterin release from human endothelial cells is triggered by interferon-gamma. Clin. Exp. Immunol., 1992, 88(3), 555-558.
[] [PMID: 1606740]
von Versen-Hoeynck, F.M.; Hubel, C.A.; Gallaher, M.J.; Gammill, H.S.; Powers, R.W. Plasma levels of inflammatory markers neopterin, sialic acid, and C-reactive protein in pregnancy and preeclampsia. Am. J. Hypertens., 2009, 22(6), 687-692.
[] [PMID: 19282816]
Fuith, L.C.; Fuchs, D.; Hausen, A.; Hetzel, H.; Reibnegger, G.; Werner, E.R.; Wachter, H. Neopterin, a marker of cell-mediated immune activation in human pregnancy. Int. J. Fertil., 1991, 36(6), 372-375.
[PMID: 1684963]
Fuchs, D.; Schröcksnadel, H.; Baier-Bitterlich, G.; Dapunt, O.; Wachter, H. Activated cellular immunity and decreased serum tryptophan in healthy pregnancy. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 1996, 398, 149-153.
[] [PMID: 8906258]
Schröcksnadel, H.; Baier-Bitterlich, G.; Dapunt, O.; Wachter, H.; Fuchs, D. Decreased plasma tryptophan in pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol., 1996, 88(1), 47-50.
[] [PMID: 8684760]
Badawy, A.A. The functions and regulation of tryptophan pyrrolase. Life Sci., 1977, 21(6), 755-768.
[] [PMID: 21336]
Badawy, A.A.B. Tryptophan availability for kynurenine pathway metabolism across the life span: Control mechanisms and focus on aging, exercise, diet and nutritional supplements. Neuropharmacology, 2017, 112(Pt B), 248-263.
[] [PMID: 26617070]
Stone, T.W. Tryptophan and kynurenines: Continuing to court controversy. Clin. Sci. (Lond.), 2016, 130(15), 1335-1337.
[] [PMID: 27358029]
Sano, M.; Ferchaud-Roucher, V.; Kaeffer, B.; Poupeau, G.; Castellano, B.; Darmaun, D. Maternal and fetal tryptophan metabolism in gestating rats: Effects of intrauterine growth restriction. Amino Acids, 2016, 48(1), 281-290.
[] [PMID: 26334345]
Rose, D.P.; Braidman, I.P. Excretion of tryptophan metabolites as affected by pregnancy, contraceptive steroids, and steroid hormones. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1971, 24(6), 673-683.
[] [PMID: 4325646]
Munn, D.H.; Zhou, M.; Attwood, J.T.; Bondarev, I.; Conway, S.J.; Marshall, B.; Brown, C.; Mellor, A.L. Prevention of allogeneic fetal rejection by tryptophan catabolism. Science, 1998, 281(5380), 1191-1193.
[] [PMID: 9712583]
Kim, H.; Toyofuku, Y.; Lynn, F.C.; Chak, E.; Uchida, T.; Mizukami, H.; Fujitani, Y.; Kawamori, R.; Miyatsuka, T.; Kosaka, Y.; Yang, K.; Honig, G.; van der Hart, M.; Kishimoto, N.; Wang, J.; Yagihashi, S.; Tecott, L.H.; Watada, H.; German, M.S. Serotonin regulates pan-creatic beta cell mass during pregnancy. Nat. Med., 2010, 16(7), 804-808.
[] [PMID: 20581837]
Ftukijwatari, T.; Murakami, M.; Ohta, M.; Kimura, N.; Jin-No, Y.; Sasaki, R.; Shibata, K. Changes in the urinary excretion of the metabolites of the tryptophan-niacin pathway during pregnancy in Japanese women and rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 2004, 50(6), 392-398.
[] [PMID: 15895513]
Bonney, E.A.; Matzinger, P. Much IDO about pregnancy. Nat. Med., 1998, 4(10), 1128-1129.
[] [PMID: 9771744]
Badawy, A.A.B.; Namboodiri, A.M.A.; Moffett, J.R. The end of the road for the tryptophan depletion concept in pregnancy and infec-tion. Clin. Sci. (Lond.), 2016, 130(15), 1327-1333.
[] [PMID: 27358028]
Maes, M.; Leonard, B.E.; Myint, A.M.; Kubera, M.; Verkerk, R. The new ‘5-HT’ hypothesis of depression: Cell-mediated immune acti-vation induces indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which leads to lower plasma tryptophan and an increased synthesis of detrimental trypto-phan catabolites (TRYCATs), both of which contribute to the onset of depression. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 2011, 35(3), 702-721.
[] [PMID: 21185346]
Fuchs, D.; Möller, A.A.; Reibnegger, G.; Stöckle, E.; Werner, E.R.; Wachter, H. Decreased serum tryptophan in patients with HIV-1 in-fection correlates with increased serum neopterin and with neurologic/psychiatric symptoms. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 1990, 3(9), 873-876.
[PMID: 2166783]
Chang, R.Q.; Li, D.J.; Li, M.Q. The role of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in normal and pathological pregnancies. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol., 2018, 79(4), e12786.
[] [PMID: 29154462]
Racicot, K.; Kwon, J.Y.; Aldo, P.; Silasi, M.; Mor, G. Understanding the complexity of the immune system during pregnancy. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol., 2014, 72(2), 107-116.
[] [PMID: 24995526]
Badawy, A.A.B. Tryptophan: The key to boosting brain serotonin synthesis in depressive illness. J. Psychopharmacol., 2013, 27(10), 878-893.
[] [PMID: 23904410]
Malina, H.Z.; Martin, X.D. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: Antioxidant enzyme in the human eye. Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol., 1996, 234(7), 457-462.
[] [PMID: 8817290]
Christen, S.; Peterhans, E.; Stocker, R. Antioxidant activities of some tryptophan metabolites: Possible implication for inflammatory diseases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1990, 87(7), 2506-2510.
[] [PMID: 2320571]
Murthi, P.; Wallace, E.M.; Walker, D.W. Altered placental tryptophan metabolic pathway in human fetal growth restriction. Placenta, 2017, 52, 62-70.
[] [PMID: 28454699]
Peter Stein, T.; Scholl, T.O.; Schluter, M.D.; Leskiw, M.J.; Chen, X.; Spur, B.W.; Rodriguez, A. Oxidative stress early in pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. Free Radic. Res., 2008, 42(10), 841-848.
[] [PMID: 18985484]
Scholl, T.O.; Leskiw, M.; Chen, X.; Sims, M.; Stein, T.P. Oxidative stress, diet, and the etiology of preeclampsia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2005, 81(6), 1390-1396.
[] [PMID: 15941892]
Michael, A.F.; Drummond, K.N.; Doeden, D.; Anderson, J.A.; Good, R.A. Tryptophan metabolism in man. J. Clin. Invest., 1964, 43(9), 1730-1746.
[] [PMID: 14208245]
Green, A.R.; Aronson, J.K.; Curzon, G.; Woods, H.F. Metabolism of an oral tryptophan load. I: Effects of dose and pretreatment with tryptophan. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 1980, 10(6), 603-610.
[] [PMID: 6162471]
Gostner, J.M.; Geisler, S.; Stonig, M.; Mair, L.; Sperner-Unterweger, B.; Fuchs, D. Tryptophan Metabolism and Related Pathways in Psychoneuroimmunology: The Impact of Nutrition and Lifestyle. Neuropsychobiology, 2020, 79(1), 89-99.
Mezrich, J.D.; Fechner, J.H.; Zhang, X.; Johnson, B.P.; Burlingham, W.J.; Bradfield, C.A. An interaction between kynurenine and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor can generate regulatory T cells. J. Immunol., 2010, 185(6), 3190-3198.
[] [PMID: 20720200]
Kudo, Y.; Boyd, C.A.R.; Spyropoulou, I.; Redman, C.W.G.; Takikawa, O.; Katsuki, T.; Hara, T.; Ohama, K.; Sargent, I.L. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: Distribution and function in the developing human placenta. J. Reprod. Immunol., 2004, 61(2), 87-98.
[] [PMID: 15063632]
Fallarino, F.; Grohmann, U.; Vacca, C.; Orabona, C.; Spreca, A.; Fioretti, M.C.; Puccetti, P. T cell apoptosis by kynurenines. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 2003, 527, 183-190.
[] [PMID: 15206731]
Schröcksnadel, K.; Wirleitner, B.; Winkler, C.; Fuchs, D. Monitoring tryptophan metabolism in chronic immune activation. Clin. Chim. Acta, 2006, 364(1-2), 82-90.
[] [PMID: 16139256]
Yamazaki, F.; Kuroiwa, T.; Takikawa, O.; Kido, R. Human indolylamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Its tissue distribution, and characterization of the placental enzyme. Biochem. J., 1985, 230(3), 635-638.
[] [PMID: 3877502]
Schröcksnadel, K.; Widner, B.; Bergant, A.; Neurauter, G.; Schröcksnadel, H.; Fuchs, D. Tryptophan degradation during and after gesta-tion. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 2003, 527, 77-83.
[] [PMID: 15206718]
Nowak, E.C.; de Vries, V.C.; Wasiuk, A.; Ahonen, C.; Bennett, K.A.; Le Mercier, I.; Ha, D.G.; Noelle, R.J. Tryptophan hydroxylase-1 regulates immune tolerance and inflammation. J. Exp. Med., 2012, 209(11), 2127-2135.
[] [PMID: 23008335]
Evans, R.W.; Powers, R.W.; Ness, R.B.; Cropcho, L.J.; Daftary, A.R.; Harger, G.F.; Vergona, R.; Finegold, D.N. Maternal and fetal amino acid concentrations and fetal outcomes during pre-eclampsia. Reproduction, 2003, 125(6), 785-790.
[] [PMID: 12773100]
Ren, J.; Chen, Y.B.; Zhou, Q.B.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.Y.; Zhang, Y.Y. Decreased circulating neopterin is associated with increased arterial elastici-ty: A beneficial role of periodontal treatment. Aust. Dent. J., 2016, 61(1), 76-83.
Prasanna, J.S.; Sumadhura, C.; Karunakar, P. Neopterin as a diagnostic biomarker for diagnosis of inflammatory diseases like periodon-titis. J. Oral Res. Rev., 2017, 9(1), 45-49.
Arjunkumar, R.; Sudhakar, U.; Jayakumar, P.; Arunachalam, L.; Suresh, S.; Virupapuram, P. Comparative analysis of gingival crevicular fluid neopterin levels in health and periodontal disease: A biochemical study. Indian J. Dent. Res., 2013, 24(5), 582-586.
Markon, A.O.; Ryan, K.A.; Wadhawan, A.; Pavlovich, M.; Groer, M.W.; Punzalan, C.; Gensheimer, K.; Jones, J.L.; Daue, M.L.; Dagdag, A.; Donnelly, P.; Peng, X.; Pollin, T.I.; Mitchell, B.D.; Postolache, T.T. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in the old order Amish. Epidemiol. Infect., 2020, 149, e89.
[] [PMID: 33234182]
Duffy, A.R.; O’Connell, J.R.; Pavlovich, M.; Ryan, K.A.; Lowry, C.A.; Daue, M.; Raheja, U.K.; Brenner, L.A.; Markon, A.O.; Punzalan, C.M.; Dagdag, A.; Hill, D.E.; Pollin, T.I.; Seyfang, A.; Groer, M.W.; Mitchell, B.D.; Postolache, T.T. Toxoplasma gondii serointensity and seropositivity: Heritability and household-related associations in the old order Amish. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2019, 16(19), E3732.
[] [PMID: 31623376]
Widner, B.; Werner, E.R.; Schennach, H.; Wachter, H.; Fuchs, D. Simultaneous measurement of serum tryptophan and kynurenine by HPLC. Clin. Chem., 1997, 43(12), 2424-2426.
[] [PMID: 9439467]
Widner, B.; Ledochowski, M.; Fuchs, D. Interferon-γ-induced tryptophan degradation: Neuropsychiatric and immunological conse-quences. Curr. Drug Metab., 2000, 1(2), 193-204.
[] [PMID: 11465083]
Munn, D.H.; Shafizadeh, E.; Attwood, J.T.; Bondarev, I.; Pashine, A.; Mellor, A.L. Inhibition of T cell proliferation by macrophage tryp-tophan catabolism. J. Exp. Med., 1999, 189(9), 1363-1372.
[] [PMID: 10224276]
Spector, A.; Wadhawan, A.; Constantine, N.; Ryan, K.; Mohyuddin, I.; Dagdag, A.; Brenner, L.; Daue, M.; Schifferle, R.E.; Ernst, R.K.; Mitchell, B.; Reynolds, M.A.; Postolache, T. Sleep and Porphyromonas gingivalis K-capsular IgG serotypes: A study in the old order Amish. Biol. Psychiatry, 2021, 89(9), S246-S7.
Wadhawan, A.; Reynolds, M.A.; Ernst, R.K.; Constantine, N.; Schifferle, R.; Abouhamda, A.; Makkar, H.; Dagdag, A.; Harville, C., II; Dutra, S.; Groer, M.W.; Postolache, T.T. Porphyromonas gingivalis K6 serotype IgG titers predict prenatal depression scores. Biol. Psychiatry, 2020, 87(9), S322.
Warren, K.R.; Postolache, T.T.; Groer, M.E.; Pinjari, O.; Kelly, D.L.; Reynolds, M.A. Role of chronic stress and depression in periodon-tal diseases. Periodontol. 2000, 2014, 64(1), 127-138.
[] [PMID: 24320960]
Spector, A.M.; Postolache, T.T.; Akram, F.; Scott, A.J.; Wadhawan, A.; Reynolds, M.A. Psychological stress: A predisposing and exac-erbating factor in periodontitis. Curr. Oral Health Rep., 2020, 7(3), 208-215.
Dennery, P.A. Oxidative stress in development: Nature or nurture? Free Radic. Biol. Med., 2010, 49(7), 1147-1151.
[] [PMID: 20656021]
Mutinati, M.; Piccinno, M.; Roncetti, M.; Campanile, D.; Rizzo, A.; Sciorsci, R. Oxidative stress during pregnancy in the sheep. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 2013, 48(3), 353-357.
[] [PMID: 23346938]
Raijmakers, M.T.M.; Dechend, R.; Poston, L. Oxidative stress and preeclampsia: Rationale for antioxidant clinical trials. Hypertension, 2004, 44(4), 374-380.
[] [PMID: 15326082]
Nayak, B.N.; Buttar, H.S. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of tryptophan and its metabolites in in vitro assay. J. Complement. Integr. Med., 2016, 13(2), 129-136.
[] [PMID: 26641976]
Bitzer-Quintero, O.K.; Dávalos-Marín, A.J.; Ortiz, G.G.; Meza, A.R.; Torres-Mendoza, B.M.; Robles, R.G.; Huerta, V.C.; Beas-Zárate, C. Antioxidant activity of tryptophan in rats under experimental endotoxic shock. Biomed. Pharmacother., 2010, 64(1), 77-81.
[] [PMID: 19896323]
Watanabe, S.; Togashi, S.; Takahashi, N.; Fukui, T. L-tryptophan as an antioxidant in human placenta extract. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 2002, 48(1), 36-39.
[] [PMID: 12026186]
Ciji, A.; Sahu, N.P.; Pal, A.K.; Akhtar, M.S. Nitrite-induced alterations in sex steroids and thyroid hormones of Labeo rohita juveniles: Effects of dietary vitamin E and L-tryptophan. Fish Physiol. Biochem., 2013, 39(5), 1297-1307.
[] [PMID: 23504103]
Genestet, C.; Le Gouellec, A.; Chaker, H.; Polack, B.; Guery, B.; Toussaint, B.; Stasia, M.J. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by tryptophan metabolites helps Pseudomonas aeruginosa escape neutrophil killing. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 2014, 73, 400-410.
[] [PMID: 24929180]
Pérez-González, A.; Alvarez-Idaboy, J.R.; Galano, A. Free-radical scavenging by tryptophan and its metabolites through electron transfer based processes. J. Mol. Model., 2015, 21(8), 213.
[] [PMID: 26224603]
Lugo-Huitrón, R.; Blanco-Ayala, T.; Ugalde-Muñiz, P.; Carrillo-Mora, P.; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J.; Silva-Adaya, D.; Maldonado, P.D.; Torres, I.; Pinzón, E.; Ortiz-Islas, E.; López, T.; García, E.; Pineda, B.; Torres-Ramos, M.; Santamaría, A.; La Cruz, V.P. On the antioxi-dant properties of kynurenic acid: Free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of oxidative stress. Neurotoxicol. Teratol., 2011, 33(5), 538-547.
[] [PMID: 21763768]
Lima, V.L.A.; Dias, F.; Nunes, R.D.; Pereira, L.O.; Santos, T.S.R.; Chiarini, L.B.; Ramos, T.D.; Silva-Mendes, B.J.; Perales, J.; Valente, R.H.; Oliveira, P.L. The antioxidant role of xanthurenic acid in the Aedes aegypti midgut during digestion of a blood meal. PLoS One, 2012, 7(6), e38349.
[] [PMID: 22701629]
Reyes Ocampo, J.; Lugo Huitrón, R.; González-Esquivel, D.; Ugalde-Muñiz, P.; Jiménez-Anguiano, A.; Pineda, B. Kynurenines with neuro-active and redox properties: Relevance to aging and brain diseases. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev., 2014, 2014, 646909.
Reiter, R.J.; Tan, D.X.; Cabrera, J.; D’Arpa, D. Melatonin and tryptophan derivatives as free radical scavengers and antioxidants. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 1999, 467, 379-387.
[] [PMID: 10721079]
Weiss, G.; Diez-Ruiz, A.; Murr, C.; Theur, I.; Fuchs, D. Tryptophan metabolites as scavengers of reactive oxygen and chlorine species. Pteridines, 2002, 13(4), 140-144.
Forrest, C.M.; Mackay, G.M.; Stoy, N.; Egerton, M.; Christofides, J.; Stone, T.W.; Darlington, L.G. Tryptophan loading induces oxidative stress. Free Radic. Res., 2004, 38(11), 1167-1171.
[] [PMID: 15621693]
Stone, T.W. Kynurenines in the CNS: From endogenous obscurity to therapeutic importance. Prog. Neurobiol., 2001, 64(2), 185-218.
[] [PMID: 11240212]
Okuda, S.; Nishiyama, N.; Saito, H.; Katsuki, H. 3-Hydroxy-] kynurenine, an endogenous oxidative stress generator, causes neuronal cell death with apoptotic features and region selectivity. J. Neurochem., 1998, 70(1), 299-307.
[] [PMID: 9422375]
Hiratsuka, C.; Fukuwatari, T.; Sano, M.; Saito, K.; Sasaki, S.; Shibata, K. Supplementing healthy women with up to 5.0 g/d of L-tryptophan has no adverse effects. J. Nutr., 2013, 143(6), 859-866.
[] [PMID: 23616514]
Xu, K.; Liu, H.; Bai, M.; Gao, J.; Wu, X.; Yin, Y. Redox properties of tryptophan metabolism and the concept of tryptophan use in pregnan-cy. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2017, 18(7), 1595.
Scrandis, D.A.; Langenberg, P.; Tonelli, L.H.; Sheikh, T.M.; Manogura, A.C.; Alberico, L.A.; Hermanstyne, T.; Fuchs, D.; Mighty, H.; Hasday, J.D.; Boteva, K.; Postolache, T.T. Prepartum depressive symptoms correlate positively with C-reactive protein levels and nega-tively with tryptophan levels: A preliminary report. Int. J. Child Health Hum. Dev., 2008, 1(2), 167-174.
[PMID: 18924606]
Baïlara, K.M.; Henry, C.; Lestage, J.; Launay, J.M.; Parrot, F.; Swendsen, J.; Sutter, A.L.; Roux, D.; Dallay, D.; Demotes-Mainard, J. Decreased brain tryptophan availability as a partial determinant of post-partum blues. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2006, 31(3), 407-413.
[] [PMID: 16303256]
Veen, C.; Myint, A.M.; Burgerhout, K.M.; Schwarz, M.J.; Schütze, G.; Kushner, S.A.; Hoogendijk, W.J.; Drexhage, H.A.; Bergink, V. Tryptophan pathway alterations in the postpartum period and in acute postpartum psychosis and depression. J. Affect. Disord., 2016, 189, 298-305.
[] [PMID: 26454336]
Achtyes, E.; Keaton, S.A.; Smart, L.; Burmeister, A.R.; Heilman, P.L.; Krzyzanowski, S.; Nagalla, M.; Guillemin, G.J.; Escobar Galvis, M.L.; Lim, C.K.; Muzik, M.; Postolache, T.T.; Leach, R.; Brundin, L. Inflammation and kynurenine pathway dysregulation in post-partum women with severe and suicidal depression. Brain Behav. Immun., 2020, 83, 239-247.
[] [PMID: 31698012]
Teshigawara, T.; Mouri, A.; Kubo, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Shiino, T.; Okada, T.; Morikawa, M.; Nabeshima, T.; Ozaki, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Saito, K. Changes in tryptophan metabolism during pregnancy and postpartum periods: Potential involvement in postpartum depressive symptoms. J. Affect. Disord., 2019, 255, 168-176.
[] [PMID: 31158779]
Sternberg, R.M.; Nápoles, A.M.; Gregorich, S.; Paul, S.; Lee, K.A.; Stewart, A.L. Development of the stress of immigration survey: A field test among Mexican immigrant women. Fam. Community Health, 2016, 39(1), 40-52.
[] [PMID: 26605954]
Sangalang, C.C.; Becerra, D.; Mitchell, F.M.; Lechuga-Peña, S.; Lopez, K.; Kim, I. Trauma, post-migration stress, and mental health: A comparative analysis of refugees and immigrants in the United States. J. Immigr. Minor. Health, 2019, 21(5), 909-919.
[] [PMID: 30244330]
Sha, Q.; Madaj, Z.; Keaton, S.; Escobar Galvis, M.L.; Smart, L.; Krzyzanowski, S.; Fazleabas, A.T.; Leach, R.; Postolache, T.T.; Achtyes, E.D.; Brundin, L. Cytokines and tryptophan metabolites can predict depressive symptoms in pregnancy. Transl. Psychiatry, 2022, 12(1), 35.
[] [PMID: 35078975]
Martínez, M.; Postolache, T.T.; García-Bueno, B.; Leza, J.C.; Figuero, E.; Lowry, C.A.; Malan-Müller, S. The role of the oral microbiota related to periodontal diseases in anxiety, mood and trauma- and stress-related disorders. Front. Psychiatry, 2022, 12, 814177.
[] [PMID: 35153869]
Haber, J.; Wattles, J.; Crowley, M.; Mandell, R.; Joshipura, K.; Kent, R.L. Evidence for cigarette smoking as a major risk factor for perio-dontitis. J. Periodontol., 1993, 64(1), 16-23.
[] [PMID: 8426285]
Tomar, S.L.; Asma, S. Smoking-attributable periodontitis in the United States: Findings from NHANES III. National health and nutrition examination survey. J. Periodontol., 2000, 71(5), 743-751.
[] [PMID: 10872955]
Moore, S.; Randhawa, M.; Ide, M. A case-control study to investigate an association between adverse pregnancy outcome and periodon-tal disease. J. Clin. Periodontol., 2005, 32(1), 1-5.
[] [PMID: 15642050]
Census, U.S. Population and Housing Unit Estimates; U.S. Government Printing Office, 2020.
Manski, R.J.; Moeller, J.F. Use of dental services: An analysis of visits, procedures and providers, 1996. J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 2002, 133(2), 167-175.
[] [PMID: 11868835]
Acevedo-Garcia, D.; Soobader, M.J.; Berkman, L.F. Low birth weight among US Hispanic/Latino subgroups: The effect of maternal for-eign-born status and education. Soc. Sci. Med., 2007, 65(12), 2503-2516.
[] [PMID: 17764796]
Kanai, M.; Funakoshi, H.; Takahashi, H.; Hayakawa, T.; Mizuno, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Nakamura, T. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase is a key modulator of physiological neurogenesis and anxiety-related behavior in mice. Mol. Brain, 2009, 2(1), 8.
[] [PMID: 19323847]
Traylor, C.S.; Johnson, J.D.; Kimmel, M.C.; Manuck, T.A. Effects of psychological stress on adverse pregnancy outcomes and non-pharmacologic approaches for reduction: An expert review. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. MFM, 2020, 2(4), 100229.
[] [PMID: 32995736]
Guay, A.H. Access to dental care: Solving the problem for underserved populations. J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 2004, 135(11), 1599-1605.
[] [PMID: 15622666]
Group F-NBW. BEST (Biomarkers, EndpointS, and other Tools) Resource. Silver Spring (MD) Bethesda (MD): Food and Drug Administration (US) National Institutes of Health (US); 2016. p. Response Biomarker. , 2016. Dec 22; [Updated 21 Sep 17]
Group F-NBW. BEST (Biomarkers, EndpointS, and other Tools) Resource. Silver Spring (MD) Bethesda (MD): Food and Drug Administration (US) National Institutes of Health (US); 2016. p. Monitoring Biomarker. , 2016. Dec 22; [Updated 21 Jan 25]
Group F-NBW. BEST (Biomarkers, EndpointS, and other Tools) Resource. Silver Spring (MD) Bethesda (MD): Food and Drug Administration (US) National Institutes of Health (US); 2016. p. Understanding Prognostic versus Predictive Biomarkers. 2016 Dec 22;
Zubizarreta, J.R.; Umhau, J.C.; Deuster, P.A.; Brenner, L.A.; King, A.J.; Petukhova, M.V.; Sampson, N.A.; Tizenberg, B.; Upadhyaya, S.K. RachBeisel, J.A.; Streeten, E.A.; Kessler, R.C.; Postolache, T.T. Evaluating the heterogeneous effect of a modifiable risk factor on suicide: The case of vitamin D deficiency. Int. J. Methods Psychiatr. Res., 2021, e1897.
[] [PMID: 34739164]
Sun, Y.; Zheng, W.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Zhang, C.; Ma, W.; Tian, D.; Yu, K.H.; Xiao, S.; Jin, L.; Hua, J. Quantifying the impacts of pre- and post-conception TSH levels on birth outcomes: An examination of different machine learning models. Front. Endocrinol. (Lausanne), 2021, 12, 755364.
[] [PMID: 34777251]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy