Generic placeholder image

Recent Patents on Biotechnology


ISSN (Print): 1872-2083
ISSN (Online): 2212-4012

Review Article

Coronavirus - A Crippling Affliction to Humans

Author(s): Rimple Kaul and Sunita Devi*

Volume 16, Issue 3, 2022

Published on: 23 May, 2022

Page: [226 - 242] Pages: 17

DOI: 10.2174/1872208316666220404103033

Price: $65


Coronaviruses hold idiosyncratic morphological features and functionality. The members of this group have a remarkable capability of infecting both animals and humans. Inimitably, the replication of the RNA genome continues through the set of viral mRNA molecules. Coronaviruses received least attention until 2003 since they caused only minor respiratory tract illnesses. However, this changed exclusively with the introduction of zoonotic SARS-CoV in 2003. In 2012, MERS-CoV emerged and confirmed this group of viruses as the major causative agents of severe respiratory tract illness. Today, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (i.e., COVID-19) has turned out to be a chief health problem that causes a severe acute respiratory disorder in humans. Since the first identification of COVID-19 in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, this infection has devastatingly spread all around the globe leading to a crippling affliction for humans. The strain is known as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and WHO (the World Health Organization) has termed this new pandemic disease as Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 is still spreading, with an estimated 136 million confirmed cases and more than 2.94 million deaths worldwide so far. In the current scenario, there is no particular treatment for COVID-19; however, remarkable efforts for immunization and vaccine development can be observed. Therefore, the execution of precautions and proper preventive measures are indispensable to minimize and control the community transmission of the virus. This review summarizes information related to the pathophysiology, transmission, symptoms, the host defense mechanism plus immunization and vaccine development against COVID-19 including the patents filed.

Keywords: Coronaviruses, SARS-CoV2, COVID-19, pathophysiology, transmission, immunization, COVID-19 vaccine.

Graphical Abstract
Gorbalenya AE, Baker SC, Baric RS, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: The species and its viruses – a statement of the coronavirus study group. the preprint server for biology. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2020; 318: L1016-9.
Wu C, Liu Y, Yang Y, et al. Analysis of therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 and discovery of potential drugs by com-putational methods. Acta Pharm Sin B 2020; 10(5): 766-88.
[] [PMID: 32292689]
Hui DSI, Azhar E, Madani TA, et al. The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health - The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Int J Infect Dis 2020; 91: 264-6.
[] [PMID: 31953166]
Singal CMS, Jaiswal P, Seth P. SARS-CoV-2 more than a respiratory virus: Its potential role in neuropathogenesis. ACS Chem Neurosci 2020; 11(13): 1887-99.
[] [PMID: 32491829]
Chen Q, Lim B, Ong S, Wong WY, Kong YC. Rapid ramp-up of powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) training for infection prevention and control during the COVID-19 pandemic. Br J Anaesth 2020; 125(1): e171-6.
[] [PMID: 32340733]
Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(8): 727-33.
[] [PMID: 31978945]
Bo L, Feng F, Yang G, et al. Immunoglobulin G/M and cytokines detections in continuous sera from patients with novel coronaviruses (2019-nCoV) infection SSRN Elec J 2019.
Haghani M, Bliemer MCJ, Goerlandt F, Li J. The scientific literature on coronaviruses, COVID-19 and its associated safety-related research dimensions: A scientometric analysis and scoping review. Saf Sci 2020; 129: 104806.
[] [PMID: 32382213]
Wiersinga WJ, Rhodes A, Cheng AC, Peacock SJ, Prescott HC. Pathophysiology, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A review. JAMA 2020; 324(8): 782-93.
[] [PMID: 32648899]
Al-Khannaq MN, Ng KT, Oong XY, et al. Molecular epidemiology and evolutionary histories of human coronavirus OC43 and HKU1 among patients with upper respiratory tract infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Virol J 2016; 13: 33-42.
[] [PMID: 26916286]
Zhong NS, Zheng BJ, Li YM, et al. Epidemiology and cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Guang-dong, people’s republic of China, in February, 2003. Lancet 2003; 362(9393): 1353-8.
[] [PMID: 14585636]
Zaki AM, van Boheemen S, Bestebroer TM, Osterhaus AD, Fouchier RA. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. N Engl J Med 2012; 367(19): 1814-20.
[] [PMID: 23075143]
Lu S. Timely development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Emerg Microbes Infect 2020; 9(1): 542-4.
[] [PMID: 32148172]
Lam TT, Jia N, Zhang YW, et al. Identifying SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins. Nature 2020; 583(7815): 282-5.
[] [PMID: 32218527]
Goldsmith CS, Tatti KM, Ksiazek TG, et al. Ultrastructural characterization of SARS coronavirus. Emerg Infect Dis 2004; 10(2): 320-6.
[] [PMID: 15030705]
Wrapp D, Wang N, Corbett KS, et al. Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation. Science 2020; 367(6483): 1260-3.
[] [PMID: 32075877]
Li F. Structure, function, and evolution of coronavirus spike proteins. Annu Rev Virol 2016; 3(1): 237-61.
[] [PMID: 27578435]
Hurdiss DL, Drulyte I, Lang Y, et al. Cryo-EM structure of coronavirus-HKU1 haemagglutinin esterase reveals architec-tural changes arising from prolonged circulation in humans. Nat Commun 2020; 11(1): 4646.
[] [PMID: 32938911]
Wang M, Ludwig K, Böttcher C, Veit M. The role of stearate attachment to the hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycopro-tein HEF of influenza C virus. Cell Microbiol 2016; 18(5): 692-704.
[] [PMID: 26518983]
Ganyani T, Kremer C, Chen D, et al. Estimating the generation interval for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) based on symptom onset data, March 2020. Euro Surveill 2020; 25(17): 2000257.
[] [PMID: 32372755]
Mao R, Qiu Y, He JS, et al. Manifestations and prognosis of gastrointestinal and liver involvement in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020; 5(7): 667-78.
[] [PMID: 32405603]
Levi M, Thachil J, Iba T, Levy JH. Coagulation abnormalities and thrombosis in patients with COVID-19. Lancet Haematol 2020; 7(6): e438-40.
[] [PMID: 32407672]
Long B, Brady WJ, Koyfman A, Gottlieb M. Cardiovascular complications in COVID-19. Am J Emerg Med 2020; 38(7): 1504-7.
[] [PMID: 32317203]
Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Cardona-Ospina JA, Gutiérrez-Ocampo E, et al. Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis 2020; 34: 101623.
[] [PMID: 32179124]
Chu DK, Akl EA, Duda S, Solo K, Yaacoub S, Schünemann HJ. Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2020; 395(10242): 1973-87.
[] [PMID: 32497510]
Bourouiba L. Turbulent gas clouds and respiratory pathogen emissions: Potential implications for reducing transmission of COVID-19. JAMA 2020; 323(18): 1837-8.
[] [PMID: 32215590]
Lewis D. Is the coronavirus airborne? Experts can’t agree. Nature 2020; 580(7802): 175.
[] [PMID: 32242113]
Chia PY, Coleman KK, Tan YK, et al. Detection of air and surface contamination by SARS-CoV-2 in hospital rooms of infected patients. Nat Commun 2020; 11(1): 2800.
[] [PMID: 32472043]
Dashraath P, Wong JLJ, Lim MXK, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020; 222(6): 521-31.
[] [PMID: 32217113]
van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, et al. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(16): 1564-7.
[] [PMID: 32182409]
He X, Lau EHY, Wu P, et al. Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. Nat Med 2020; 26(5): 672-5.
[] [PMID: 32296168]
Wei WE, Li Z, Chiew CJ, Yong SE, Toh MP, Lee VJ. Presymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 - Singapore, January 23-March 16, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020; 69(14): 411-5.
[] [PMID: 32271722]
Bai Y, Yao L, Wei T, et al. Presumed asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19. JAMA 2020; 323(14): 1406-7.
[] [PMID: 32083643]
Wölfel R, Corman VM, Guggemos W, et al. Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019. Nature 2020; 581(7809): 465-9.
[] [PMID: 32235945]
Park SY, Kim YM, Yi S, et al. Coronavirus disease outbreak in call center, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis 2020; 26(8): 1666-70.
[] [PMID: 32324530]
Tabata S, Imai K, Kawano S, et al. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in 104 people with SARS-CoV-2 infection on the Diamond princess cruise ship: A retrospective analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2020; 20(9): 1043-50.
[] [PMID: 32539988]
Byambasuren O, Cardona M, Bell K, Clark J, McLaws M, Glasziou P. Estimating the extent of asymptomatic COVID-19 and its potential for community transmission: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Assoc Med Microbiol Infect Dis Canada 2020; 5: 223-34.
Sun J, Xiao J, Sun R, et al. Prolonged persistence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in body fluids. Emerg Infect Dis 2020; 26(8): 1834-8.
[] [PMID: 32383638]
Cheng HY, Jian SW, Liu DP, Ng TC, Huang WT, Lin HH. Contact tracing assessment of COVID-19 transmission dy-namics in Taiwan and risk at different exposure periods before and after symptom onset. JAMA Intern Med 2020; 180(9): 1156-63.
[] [PMID: 32356867]
Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, Dulebohn SC, Napoli RD. Features, evaluation, and treatment coronavirus (COVID-19). StatPearls Treasure Island, FL 2021.Available from:
Bosch BJ, van der Zee R, de Haan CA, Rottier PJM. The coronavirus spike protein is a class I virus fusion protein: Structural and functional characterization of the fusion core complex. J Virol 2003; 77(16): 8801-11.
[] [PMID: 12885899]
Walls AC, Park YJ, Tortorici MA, Wall A, McGuire AT, Veesler D. Structure, function, and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. Cell 2020; 181(2): 281-292.e6.
[] [PMID: 32155444]
Letko M, Marzi A, Munster V. Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for SARS-CoV-2 and other line-age B betacoronaviruses. Nat Microbiol 2020; 5(4): 562-9.
[] [PMID: 32094589]
Belouzard S, Millet JK, Licitra BN, Whittaker GR. Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by the viral spike protein. Viruses 2012; 4(6): 1011-33.
[] [PMID: 22816037]
Ou X, Liu Y, Lei X, et al. Characterization of spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 on virus entry and its immune cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV. Nat Commun 2020; 11(1): 1620.
[] [PMID: 32221306]
Yang N, Shen HM. Targeting the endocytic pathway and autophagy process as a novel therapeutic strategy in COVID-19. Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(10): 1724-31.
[] [PMID: 32226290]
Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, et al. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell 2020; 181(2): 271-280.e8.
[] [PMID: 32142651]
Sungnak W, Huang N, Bécavin C, et al. SARS-CoV-2 entry factors are highly expressed in nasal epithelial cells together with innate immune genes. Nat Med 2020; 26(5): 681-7.
[] [PMID: 32327758]
Zou X, Chen K, Zou J, Han P, Hao J, Han Z. Single-cell RNA-seq data analysis on the receptor ACE2 expression reveals the potential risk of different human organs vulnerable to 2019-nCoV infection. Front Med 2020; 14(2): 185-92.
[] [PMID: 32170560]
Fosbøl EL, Butt JH, Østergaard L, et al. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker use with COVID-19 diagnosis and mortality. JAMA 2020; 324(2): 168-77.
[] [PMID: 32558877]
Mancia G, Rea F, Ludergnani M, Apolone G, Corrao G. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers and the risk of COVID-19. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(25): 2431-40.
[] [PMID: 32356627]
García LF. Immune response, inflammation, and the clinical spectrum of COVID-19. Front Immunol 2020; 11: 1441.
[] [PMID: 32612615]
Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med 2020; 8(4): 420-2.
[] [PMID: 32085846]
van de Veerdonk FL, Netea MG, van Deuren M, et al. Kallikrein-kinin blockade in patients with COVID-19 to prevent acute respiratory distress syndrome. eLife 2020; 9: e57555.
[] [PMID: 32338605]
Tang N, Li D, Wang X, Sun Z. Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. J Thromb Haemost 2020; 18(4): 844-7.
[] [PMID: 32073213]
Klok FA, Kruip MJHA, van der Meer NJM, et al. Incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. Thromb Res 2020; 191: 145-7.
[] [PMID: 32291094]
Hafez HM, Attia YA. Challenges to the poultry industry: Current perspectives and strategic future after the COVID-19 outbreak. Front Vet Sci 2020; 7: 516-32.
[] [PMID: 33005639]
Rego GNA, Nucci MP, Alves AH, et al. Current clinical trials protocols and the global effort for immunization against SARS-CoV-2. Vaccines (Basel) 2020; 8(3): 474.
[] [PMID: 32854391]
Xia S, Duan K, Zhang Y, et al. Effect of an inactivated vaccine against SARS‐CoV‐2 on safety and immunogenicity outcomes: Interim analysis of 2 randomized clinical trials. JAMA 2020; 324(10): 951-60.
[] [PMID: 32789505]
Mok DZL, Chan KR. The effects of pre-existing antibodies on live-attenuated viral vaccines. Viruses 2020; 12(5): 520-37.
[] [PMID: 32397218]
Crommelin DJA, Volkin DB, Hoogendoorn KH, Lubiniecki AS, Jiskoot W. The science is there: Key considerations for stabilizing viral vector-based COVID-19 vaccines. J Pharm Sci 2021; 110(2): 627-34.
[] [PMID: 33242452]
Dong R, Chu Z, Yu F, Zha Y. Contriving multi-epitope subunit of vaccine for COVID-19: Immunoinformatics ap-proaches. Front Immunol 2020; 11: 1784.
[] [PMID: 32849643]
de Queiroz NMGP, Marinho FV, Chagas MA, et al. Vaccines for COVID-19: Perspectives from nucleic acid vaccines to BCG as delivery vector system. Microbes Infect 2020; 22(10): 515-24.
[] [PMID: 32961274]
Brüssow H. Efforts towards a COVID-19 vaccine. Environ Microbiol 2020; 22(10): 4071-84.
[] [PMID: 32893468]
Zhang NN, Li XF, Deng YQ, et al. A thermostable mRNA vaccine against COVID‐19. Cell 2020; 182(5): 1271-1283.e16.
[] [PMID: 32795413]
Amanat F, Krammer F. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: Status report. Immunity 2020; 52(4): 583-9.
[] [PMID: 32259480]
Al-Kassmy J, Pedersen J, Kobinger G. Vaccine candidates against coronavirus infections. Where does COVID-19 stand? Viruses 2020; 12(8): 861.
[] [PMID: 32784685]
Noor R. Developmental status of the potential vaccines for the mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic and a focus on the effectiveness of the pfizer-biontech and moderna mRNA vaccines. Curr Clin Microbiol Rep 2021; 1-8.
[] [PMID: 33686365]
Chagla Z. The BNT162b2 (BioNTech/Pfizer) vaccine had 95% efficacy against COVID-19 ≥7 days after the 2nd dose. Ann Intern Med 2021; 174(2): 115-60.
[PMID: 33524290]
Sharun K, Singh R, Dhama K. Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (AZD1222) is ideal for resource-constrained low- and middle-income countries. Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021; 65: 102264.
[] [PMID: 33815783]
Oliver SE, Gargano JW, Scobie H, et al. The advisory committee on immunization practices’ interim recommendation for use of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine - United States, February 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021; 70(9): 329-32.
[] [PMID: 33661860]
Tu YF, Chien CS, Yarmishyn AA, et al. A review of SARS-CoV-2 and the ongoing clinical trials. Int J Mol Sci 2020; 21(7): 2657.
[] [PMID: 32290293]
Jackson LA, Anderson EJ, Rouphael NG, et al. An mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 - preliminary report. N Engl J Med 2020; 383(20): 1920-31.
[] [PMID: 32663912]
Zhu FC, Li YH, Guan XH, et al. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine: A dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, first-in-human trial. Lancet 2020; 395(10240): 1845-54. a
[] [PMID: 32450106]
Zhu FC, Guan XH, Li YH, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18 years or older: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet 2020; 396(10249): 479-88.
[] [PMID: 32702299]
Gao Y, Yan L, Huang Y, et al. Structure of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from COVID-19 virus. Science 2020; 368(6492): 779-82.
[] [PMID: 32277040]
Hu B, Guo H, Zhou P, Shi ZL. Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Nat Rev Microbiol 2021; 19(3): 141-54.
[] [PMID: 33024307]
Yu J, Tostanoski LH, Peter L, et al. DNA vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in Rhesus macaques. Science 2020; 369(6505): 806-11.
[] [PMID: 32434945]
Abbink P, Mercado NB, Nkolola JP, et al. Lack of therapeutic efficacy of an antibody to α4β7 in SIVmac251-infected Rhesus macaques. Science 2019; 365(6457): 1029-33.
[] [PMID: 31488689]
Llanes A, Restrepo CM, Caballero Z, Rajeev S, Kennedy MA, Lleonart R. Betacoronavirus genomes: How genomic information has been used to deal with past outbreaks and the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Mol Sci 2020; 21(12): 4546.
[] [PMID: 32604724]
Dai L, Zheng T, Xu K, et al. A universal design of betacoronavirus vaccines against COVID-19, MERS, and SARS. Cell 2020; 182(3): 722-733.e11.
[] [PMID: 32645327]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy