Generic placeholder image

Current Traditional Medicine


ISSN (Print): 2215-0838
ISSN (Online): 2215-0846

Mini-Review Article

Recent Updates on Ayurveda based Phytoconstitutents for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Author(s): Aditi Kaushik* and Manish Kaushik

Volume 8, Issue 4, 2022

Published on: 29 April, 2022

Article ID: e260122200525 Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/2215083808666220126144650

Price: $65


Diabetes mellitus is a ubiquitous metabolic syndrome with increased rates of mortality from the past few decades. It is a biochemical disorder with a complex pathophysiology and has disturbed glucose homeostasis maintained by the insulin hormone. The current medications for diabetes mellitus have serious adverse effects after long treatments. Thus, Ayurveda based phytoconstitutents are a new and well-accepted path for the possible discovery of newer drugs for the better management of diabetes and associated complications. The plant phytoconstitutents are more affordable and clinically effective with less adverse effects than the modern allophatic medications. The literature has shown the efficacy and clinical safety of the traditional medicine system. These natural products act by inhibiting alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase enzymes, some act by regulating the insulin secretion and activation of PRARγ pathway for maintaining glucose concentration. These natural treatments were found to be remarkably potent and safe as no adverse effects have been clinically outlined during medical therapy. This review briefly describes the various secondary plant metabolites, their structures and proposed mechanism of action for treating diabetes mellitus and associated complications.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, drug discovery, secondary plant metabolites, ayurveda, blood sugar, phytoconstitutents.

Graphical Abstract
Kumar P, Clark M. Clinical Medicine. 7th ed. London: Elsevier Saunders 2009.
World Health Organization Study Group. Diabetes mellitus: WHO technical report, series 727. 1985.
Gardner GD, Shoback D. Greenspan’s Basic & Clinical Endocrinology. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical 2011.
DeFronzo RA, Ferrannini E, Keen H, Zimmet P. International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus. 3rd ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2004.
Guyton AC, Hall JE. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 11th ed. London: Elsevier Saunders 2006.
Rampp T, Dobos GJ, Kumar S. The significance of ayurvedic medicinal plants. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2017; 22(3): 494-501.
Grover J, Vats V. Shifting paradigm: From conventional to alter-native medicines-An introduction on traditional Indian medicines. Asia Pac Biotech News 2001; 5(1): 28-32.
Meulenbeld GJ, Leslie IJ. Medical Literature from India, Sri Lanka, and Tibet. Newyork: Ferdinand Schöningh, WilhelmFinkand mentis 1991.
Gordon A, Buch Z, Baute V, Coeytaux R, Coeytaux R. Use of Ayurveda in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glob Adv Health Med 2019; 8: 2164956119861094.
[] [PMID: 31431828]
Dragoș D, Manea MM, Timofte D, Ionescu D. Mechanisms of herbal nephroprotection in diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Res 2020; 2020: 5710513.
[] [PMID: 32695828]
Aziz N, Wal A, Wal P, Pal RS. Preparation and evaluation of the polyherbal powder: The nature’s pharmacy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Pharmacophores 2019; 10(1): 60-70.
Choudhury H, Pandey M, Hua CK, et al. An update on natural compounds in the remedy of diabetes mellitus: A systematic review. J Tradit Complement Med 2017; 8(3): 361-76.
[] [PMID: 29992107]
Jabbar Qureshi J, Memon Z, Mirza KM, Saher F. Herbal approach towards the cure of diabetes mellitus-A review. Asian J Med Health 2018; 12(2): 1-12.
Araki E, Haneda M, Kasuga M, et al. New glycemic targets for patients with diabetes from the Japan Diabetes Society. J Diabetes Investig 2017; 8(1): 123-5.
[] [PMID: 27935263]
Tran N, Pham B, Le L. Bioactive compounds in anti-diabetic plants: from herbal medicine to modern drug discovery. Biology (Basel) 2020; 9(9): 252.
[] [PMID: 32872226]
American Diabetes Association. 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: Standards of medical care in diabetes-2019. Diabetes Care 2019; 42(Suppl. 1): S13-28.
[] [PMID: 30559228]
Alqathama A, Alluhiabi G, Baghdadi H, et al. Herbal medicine from the perspective of type II diabetic patients and physicians: What is the relationship? BMC Complement Med Ther 2020; 20(1): 65.
[] [PMID: 32111222]
Kesavadev J, Saboo B, Sadikot S, et al. Unproven therapies for diabetes and their implications. Adv Ther 2017; 34(1): 60-77.
[] [PMID: 27864668]
McIntyre HD, Catalano P, Zhang C, Desoye G, Mathiesen ER, Damm P. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2019; 5(1): 47.
[] [PMID: 31296866]
International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas. 9th ed. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation 2019.
Lakshmanan S. Ayurveda-ancient science and technology: A quantum paradigm. Ayurvedic 2014; 1(1): 15-22.
Hansen K, Nyman U, Smitt UW, et al. In vitro screening of traditional medicines for anti-hypertensive effect based on inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). J Ethnopharmacol 1995; 48(1): 43-51.
Baliga MS, Palatty PL, Adnan M, et al. Anti-diabetic effects of leaves of Trigonella foenumgraecum L. (Fenugreek): Leads from preclinical studies. J Food Chem Nanotechnol 2017; 3(2): 67-71.
Eidi A, Eidi M, Sokhteh M. Effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L) seedson serum parameters in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutr Res 2007; 27(11): 728-33.
Haeri MR, Limaki HK, White CJB, White KN. Non-insulin dependent anti-diabetic activity of (2S, 3R, 4S) 4-hydroxyisoleucine of fenu-greek (Trigonella foenum graecum) in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats. Phytomedicine 2012; 19(7): 571-4.
[] [PMID: 22397995]
Kundlikrao IR. Antidiabetic drugs in ayurveda. Inter Res J Pharm 2013; 4(6): 21-4.
Shukla A, Bukhariya V, Mehta J, et al. Herbal remedies for diabetes: An overview. IJBAR 2011; 2(1): 57-68.
Srikanth N, Haripriya N, Singh R. Diabetes mellitus (madhumeha) and ayurvedic management: An evidence based approach. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015; 4(8): 881-92.
Walia K, Boolchandani R. Role of amla in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Res J Recent Sci 2015; 4: 31-5.
Hasan MR, Islam MN, Islam MR. Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and traditional uses of Embelica officinalis: A review. Int Curr Pharm J 2016; 5(2): 14-21.
Sekhar MS. Pancreatic β cells protective and regenerative properties a review. Inter J Phytopharmacol 2013; 4(1): 50-3.
Joseph B, Jini D. Anti-diabetic effects of momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2013; 3(2): 93-102.
Mahmoud MF, El Ashry FE, El Maraghy NN, Fahmy A. Studies on the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia fruit juice in strepto-zotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharm Biol 2017; 55(1): 758-65.
[] [PMID: 28064559]
Ayyanar M, Subash-Babu P. Syzygium cumini (L.) skeels: A review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012; 2(3): 240-6.
[] [PMID: 23569906]
Prabakaran K, Shanmugavel G. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical constitutents of Syzygium cumini seeds in puducherry region, South India. Inter J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2017; 9(7): 985-9.
Kumar A, Ilavarasan R, Jayachandran T, et al. Anti-diabetic activity of Syzygium cumini and its isolated compound against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Plants Res 2008; 2(9): 246-9.
Jagetia GC. Phytochemical composition and pleotropic pharmacological properties of Jamun, Syzygium Cumini Skeels. J Explor Res Phar-macol 2017; 2: 54-66.
Koupý D, Kotolová H. Rudá Kučerová J. [Effectiveness of phytotherapy in supportive treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus II. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum).]. Ceska Slov Farm 2015; 64(3): 67-71.
[PMID: 26400229]
Sharma V, Rao LJM. An overview on chemical Composition, Bioactivity and processing of Leaves of Cinnamomum tamala. Criti Rev Food Nutr 2012; 54(4): 433-48.
Kumar S, Vasudeva N, Sharma S. GC-MS analysis and screening of antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala oil in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2012; 11: 95.
[] [PMID: 22882757]
Bisht S, Sisodia SS. Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2011; 43(5): 582-5.
[] [PMID: 22022005]
Nagashayana G, Jagadeesh K, Revankar SP. Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) in albino rats. IOSR-JDMS 2014; 13(9): 04-11.
Alzohairy MA. Therapeutics role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and their active constituents in diseases prevention and treatment. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016; 2016: 7382506.
[] [PMID: 27034694]
Akter R, Zaman MM, Rahman MS, et al. Comparative studies on antidiabetic effect with phytochemical screening of Azadirachta indicia and Andrographis paniculata. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2013; 5(2): 122-8.
Sharma R, Amin H. Antidiabetic claims of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers: critical appraisal and role in therapy. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2015; 5(1): 68-78.
Sharma R, Amin H, Ruknuddin G, Prajapati PK. Efficacy of Ayurvedic remedies in type 2 diabetes: A review through works done at Guja-rat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. J Med Nutrition Nutrac 2015; 4(2): 63-9.
Tailwal P. A Marvellous Plant- Coccinia indica. European J Biomed Pharm 2016; 3(7): 232-8.
Kuriyan R, Rajendran R, Bantwal G, Kurpad AV. Effect of supplementation of Coccinia cordifolia extract on newly detected diabetic pa-tients. Diabetes Care 2008; 31(2): 216-20.
[] [PMID: 18000183]
Sahane RS, Shrungarpure MA, Wankhade PA. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of Coccinia Indica fruit extract for anti-diabetic activity. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 3(11): 587-600.
Fu QY, Li QS, Lin XM, et al. Antidiabetic effects of tea. Molecules 2017; 22(5): 849-67.
[] [PMID: 28531120]
Tang W, Li S, Liu Y, Huang MT, Ho CT. Anti-diabetic activity of chemically profiled green tea and black tea extracts in a type 2 diabetes mice model via different mechanisms. J Funct Foods 2013; 5: 1784-93.
Nithiya S, Sangeetha R. Amylase inhibitory potential of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized using Breynia retusa leaf extract. World J Pharm Res 2014; 3(7): 1055-66.
Murugan R, Prabu J, Chandran R, Sajeesh T, Iniyavan M, Parimelazhagan T. Nutritional composition, in vitro antioxidant and anti-diabetic potentials of Breynia retusa (Dennst.). Food Sci Hum Wellness 2016; 5: 30-8.
Srivastava B, Sharma VC, Pant P, Pandey NK, Jadhav AD. Evaluation for substitution of stem bark with small branches of Myrica escu-lenta for medicinal use - A comparative phytochemical study. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2016; 7(4): 218-23.
[] [PMID: 27890701]
Thakare PP, Jamdade YA, Lad MD. Conceptual study of pramehaghna dravyas from Bhavprakash nighantu on the basis of rasadi proper-ties and their doshaghnata. World J Pharm Res 2015; 4(4): 859-74.
Chauhan R, Ruby K, Shori A, Dwivedi J. Solanum nigrum with dynamic therapeutic role: a review. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2012; 15(1): 65-71.
Meonah S, Palaniswamy M, Keerthy IM, Rajkumar P, Nandhini U. Pharmacognostical and hypoglycemic activity of different parts of Solanum nigrum Linn. Plant. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012; 4(1): 221-4.
Sohrabipour S, Kharazmi F, Soltani N, Kamalinejad M. Effect of the administration of Solanum nigrum fruit on blood glucose, lipid pro-files, and sensitivity of the vascular mesenteric bed to phenylephrine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2013; 19: 133-40.
[] [PMID: 23660828]
Jain S, Jain A, Vaidya A, Kumar D, Jain V. Preliminary phytochemical, pharmacognostical and physico-chemical evaluation of Cedrus deodara Heartwood. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2014; 3(1): 91-5.
Singh P, Khosa RL, Mishra G. Evaluation of antidaibetic activity of ethanolic extract of Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae) stem bark in strepto-zotocin induced diabetes in mice. Nigerian J Exper Clin Biosci 2013; 1(2): 33-8.
Gupta S, Walia A, Malan R. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cedrus Deodera: An overview. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2011; 2(8): 2010-20.
Wanjari MM, Mishra S, Dey YN, Sharma D, Gaidhani SN, Jadhav AD. Antidiabetic activity of Chandraprabha vati - A classical Ayurvedic formulation. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2016; 7(3): 144-50.
[] [PMID: 27665674]
Weerasekera KR, Wijayasiriwardhena C, Dhammarathana I, Tissera MHA, Ariyawansha HAS. Establishment quality and purity of “Chan-draprabha vati” using sensory characteristics, physiochemical parameters, qualitative screening and TLC Finger printing. Int J Herb Med 2014; 2(3): 26-9.
Gupta LN, Rai P, Kumar N. Trivanga bhasma in ayurvedic classics. J Biol Sci Opin 2015; 3(1): 43-5.
Rajput D, Patgiri BJ, Galib R, Prajapati PK. Anti-diabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma (lead calx): A brief review. Anc Sci Life 2013; 33(1): 52-9.
[] [PMID: 25161332]
Panda AK, Das D, Dixit AK, Giri R, Hazra J. The effect of arogyavardhini vati and phalatrikadi kvatha in non alcoholic fatty liver disease-Case studies. Inter J Adv Case Reports 2016; 3(2): 59-62.
Chauhan G, Mahapatra AK, Kapoor BA, Kumar A. Clinical efficacy of Phalatrikadi Kwath in controlling blood sugar level in prameha (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus). Ayushdhara 2015; 2(2): 77-83.
Gadennavar A, Kamath S. A randomized double blind comparative clinical study on Phalatrikadi Kwatha & Vidanga Rajanyadi Kwatha in Madhumeha (Diabetes Mellitus). Inter Ayurvedic Med J 2017; 1(5): 574-83.
Rao G, Bhat S, Rao SG, Bhat PG. Effect of treatment with ‘Nishamalaki’ powder on glycemic control and markers of erythrocyte oxidative stress in diabetic rats compared to troglitazone. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2013; 19(2): 127-34.
Kumar A, Khan S, Saran GS, Nandeesh R, Manjunath NK. In vitro antidiabetic activity of Nisamalaki churna. Sains Malays 2013; 42(5): 625-8.
Tripathi S, Raghuram N, Ramarao NH. Validation of an integrated ayurveda-yoga module for residential treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - a compilation from traditional literature. Inter J Ayurvedic Herbal Med 2012; 2(5): 921-34.
Patel DK, Prasad SK, Kumar R, Hemalatha S. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012; 2(4): 320-30.
[] [PMID: 23569923]
The expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classi-fication of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1997; 20(7): 1183-97.
[] [PMID: 9203460]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy