Generic placeholder image

Current Hypertension Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-4021
ISSN (Online): 1875-6506

Review Article

Atrial Fibrillation and Hypertension: “Quo Vadis”

Author(s): McCall Walker, Paras Patel, Osung Kwon, Ryan J. Koene, Daniel A. Duprez and Younghoon Kwon*

Volume 18, Issue 1, 2022

Published on: 18 February, 2022

Page: [39 - 53] Pages: 15

DOI: 10.2174/1573402118666220112122403

Price: $65


Hypertension is one of the most well-established risk factors for atrial fibrillation. Longstanding untreated hypertension leads to structural remodeling and electrophysiologic alterations, causing an atrial myopathy that forms a vulnerable substrate for the development and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Hypertension-induced hemodynamic, inflammatory, hormonal, and autonomic changes all appear to be important contributing factors. Furthermore, hypertension is also associated with several atrial fibrillation-related comorbidities. As such, hypertension may represent an important target for therapy in atrial fibrillation. Clinicians should be aware of the pitfalls of blood pressure measurement in atrial fibrillation. While the auscultatory method is preferred, the use of automated devices appears to be an acceptable method in the ambulatory setting. There are pathophysiologic basis and emerging clinical evidence suggesting the benefit of renin-angiotensin system inhibition in risk reduction of atrial fibrillation development, particularly in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular dysfunction. A better understanding of hypertension’s pathophysiologic link to atrial fibrillation may lead to the development of novel therapies for the primary prevention of atrial fibrillation. Finally, future studies are needed to address the strategies of optimal blood pressure to minimize the risk of atrial fibrillation-related complications.

Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, hypertension, blood pressure, renin-angiotensin system, atrial remodeling, autonomic dysfunction, chronic inflammation.

Graphical Abstract
Kirchhof P, Benussi S, Kotecha D, et al. 2016 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS. Europace 2016; 18(11): 1609-78.
[] [PMID: 27567465]
Chugh SS, Havmoeller R, Narayanan K, et al. Worldwide epidemiology of atrial fibrillation: A Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study. Circulation 2014; 129(8): 837-47.
[] [PMID: 24345399]
Colilla S, Crow A, Petkun W, Singer DE, Simon T, Liu X. Estimates of current and future incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the U.S. adult population. Am J Cardiol 2013; 112(8): 1142-7.
[] [PMID: 23831166]
Chen LY, Norby FL, Gottesman RF, et al. Association of atrial fibrillation with cognitive decline and dementia over 20 years: The ARIC-NCS (atherosclerosis risk in communities neurocognitive study). J Am Heart Assoc 2018; 7(6): e007301.
[] [PMID: 29514809]
Benjamin EJ, Wolf PA, D’Agostino RB, Silbershatz H, Kannel WB, Levy D. Impact of atrial fibrillation on the risk of death: The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1998; 98(10): 946-52.
[] [PMID: 9737513]
January CT, Wann LS, Calkins H, et al. 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS focused update of the 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Heart Rhythm 2019; 16(8): e66-93.
[] [PMID: 30703530]
Lee WC, Lamas GA, Balu S, Spalding J, Wang Q, Pashos CL. Direct treatment cost of atrial fibrillation in the elderly American population: A Medicare perspective. J Med Econ 2008; 11(2): 281-98.
[] [PMID: 19450086]
Benjamin EJ, Levy D, Vaziri SM, D’Agostino RB, Belanger AJ, Wolf PA. Independent risk factors for atrial fibrillation in a population-based cohort. The Framingham Heart Study. JAMA 1994; 271(11): 840-4.
[] [PMID: 8114238]
Kannel WB, Wolf PA, Benjamin EJ, Levy D. Prevalence, incidence, prognosis, and predisposing conditions for atrial fibrillation: population-based estimates. Am J Cardiol 1998; 82(8A): 2N-9N.
[] [PMID: 9809895]
Du X, Dong J, Ma C. Is atrial fibrillation a preventable disease? J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 69(15): 1968-82.
[] [PMID: 28408027]
Psaty BM, Manolio TA, Kuller LH, et al. Incidence of and risk factors for atrial fibrillation in older adults. Circulation 1997; 96(7): 2455-61.
[] [PMID: 9337224]
O’Neal WT, Soliman EZ, Qureshi W, Alonso A, Heckbert SR, Herrington D. Sustained pre-hypertensive blood pressure and incident atrial fibrillation: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. J Am Soc Hypertens 2015; 9(3): 191-6.
[] [PMID: 25795549]
Grundvold I, Skretteberg PT, Liestøl K, et al. Upper normal blood pressures predict incident atrial fibrillation in healthy middle-aged men: a 35-year follow-up study. Hypertension 2012; 59(2): 198-204.
[] [PMID: 22252392]
Conen D, Tedrow UB, Koplan BA, Glynn RJ, Buring JE, Albert CM. Influence of systolic and diastolic blood pressure on the risk of incident atrial fibrillation in women. Circulation 2009; 119(16): 2146-52.
[] [PMID: 19364977]
Santoro F, Di Biase L, Trivedi C, et al. Impact of uncontrolled hypertension on atrial fibrillation ablation outcome. JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2015; 1(3): 164-73.
[] [PMID: 29759360]
Pallisgaard JL, Gislason GH, Hansen J, et al. Temporal trends in atrial fibrillation recurrence rates after ablation between 2005 and 2014: a nationwide Danish cohort study. Eur Heart J 2018; 39(6): 442-9.
[] [PMID: 29020388]
Huxley RR, Lopez FL, Folsom AR, et al. Absolute and attributable risks of atrial fibrillation in relation to optimal and borderline risk factors: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Circulation 2011; 123(14): 1501-8.
[] [PMID: 21444879]
Healey JS, Connolly SJ. Atrial fibrillation: Hypertension as a causative agent, risk factor for complications, and potential therapeutic target. Am J Cardiol 2003; 91(10A): 9G-14G.
[] [PMID: 12781903]
Ravelli F, Allessie M. Effects of atrial dilatation on refractory period and vulnerability to atrial fibrillation in the isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart. Circulation 1997; 96(5): 1686-95.
[] [PMID: 9315565]
Huang JL, Tai CT, Chen JT, et al. Effect of atrial dilatation on electrophysiologic properties and inducibility of atrial fibrillation. Basic Res Cardiol 2003; 98(1): 16-24.
[] [PMID: 12494265]
Goette A, Kalman JM, Aguinaga L, et al. EHRA/HRS/APHRS/SOLAECE expert consensus on atrial cardiomyopathies: Definition, characterization, and clinical implication. Europace 2016; 18(10): 1455-90.
[] [PMID: 27402624]
Ninio DM, Saint DA. The role of stretch-activated channels in atrial fibrillation and the impact of intracellular acidosis. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2008; 97(2-3): 401-16.
[] [PMID: 18367236]
Lee KW, Everett TH IV, Rahmutula D, et al. Pirfenidone prevents the development of a vulnerable substrate for atrial fibrillation in a canine model of heart failure. Circulation 2006; 114(16): 1703-12.
[] [PMID: 17030685]
Burstein B, Nattel S. Atrial fibrosis: Mechanisms and clinical relevance in atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 51(8): 802-9.
[] [PMID: 18294563]
Van Wagoner DR, Piccini JP, Albert CM, et al. Progress toward the prevention and treatment of atrial fibrillation: A summary of the Heart Rhythm Society Research Forum on the Treatment and Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation, Washington, DC, December 9-10, 2013. Heart Rhythm 2015; 12(1): e5-e29.
[] [PMID: 25460864]
Marcus GM, Smith LM, Glidden DV, et al. Markers of inflammation before and after curative ablation of atrial flutter. Heart Rhythm 2008; 5(2): 215-21.
[] [PMID: 18242542]
Sata N, Hamada N, Horinouchi T, et al. C-reactive protein and atrial fibrillation. Is inflammation a consequence or a cause of atrial fibrillation? Jpn Heart J 2004; 45(3): 441-5.
[] [PMID: 15240964]
Chen PS, Chen LS, Fishbein MC, Lin SF, Nattel S. Role of the autonomic nervous system in atrial fibrillation: Pathophysiology and therapy. Circ Res 2014; 114(9): 1500-15.
[] [PMID: 24763467]
de Vos CB, Nieuwlaat R, Crijns HJ, et al. Autonomic trigger patterns and anti-arrhythmic treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: data from the Euro Heart Survey. Eur Heart J 2008; 29(5): 632-9.
[] [PMID: 18270212]
Agarwal SK, Norby FL, Whitsel EA, et al. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction and incidence of atrial fibrillation: Results From 20 years follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 69(3): 291-9.
[] [PMID: 28104071]
Mehra R, Benjamin EJ, Shahar E, et al. Association of nocturnal arrhythmias with sleep-disordered breathing: The Sleep Heart Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 173(8): 910-6.
[] [PMID: 16424443]
Kwon Y, Gharib SA, Biggs ML, et al. Association of sleep characteristics with atrial fibrillation: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Thorax 2015; 70(9): 873-9.
[] [PMID: 25986436]
Kwon Y, Gadi S, Shah NR, et al. Atrial fibrillation and objective sleep quality by slow wave sleep. J Atr Fibrillation 2018; 11(2): 2031.
[] [PMID: 30505377]
Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2017 update: A report from the american heart association. Circulation 2017; 135(10): e146-603.
[] [PMID: 28122885]
Samokhvalov AV, Irving HM, Rehm J. Alcohol consumption as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2010; 17(6): 706-12.
[] [PMID: 21461366]
Freedman B, Camm J, Calkins H, et al. Screening for atrial fibrillation: A report of the AF-SCREEN international collaboration. Circulation 2017; 135(19): 1851-67.
[] [PMID: 28483832]
Camm AJ, Lip GY, De Caterina R, et al. 2012 focused update of the ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: An update of the 2010 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation. Developed with the special contribution of the European Heart Rhythm Association. Eur Heart J 2012; 33(21): 2719-47.
[] [PMID: 22922413]
Hobbs FD, Fitzmaurice DA, Mant J, Murray E, Jowett S, Bryan S. A randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study of systematic screening (targeted and total population screening) versus routine practice for the detection of atrial fibrillation in people aged 65 and over. The SAFE study. Health Technol Assess 2005; 9(40): 1-74.
Wachter R, Weber-Krüger M, Seegers J, et al. Age-dependent yield of screening for undetected atrial fibrillation in stroke patients: The Find-AF study. J Neurol 2013; 260(8): 2042-5.
[] [PMID: 23632947]
Wiesel J, Fitzig L, Herschman Y, Messineo FC. Detection of atrial fibrillation using a modified microlife blood pressure monitor. Am J Hypertens 2009; 22(8): 848-52.
[] [PMID: 19478793]
Wiesel J, Wiesel D, Suri R, Messineo FC. The use of a modified sphygmomanometer to detect atrial fibrillation in outpatients. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2004; 27(5): 639-43.
[] [PMID: 15125721]
Kearley K, Selwood M, Van den Bruel A, Thompson M, Mant D, Hobbs FR. Triage tests for identifying atrial fibrillation in primary care: a diagnostic accuracy study comparing single-lead ECG and modified BP monitors. BMJ Open 2014; 4(5)
Wiesel J, Arbesfeld B, Schechter D. Comparison of the microlife blood pressure monitor with the Omron blood pressure monitor for detecting atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 2014; 114(7): 1046-8.
[] [PMID: 25212546]
Stergiou GS, Karpettas N, Protogerou A, Nasothimiou EG, Kyriakidis M. Diagnostic accuracy of a home blood pressure monitor to detect atrial fibrillation. J Hum Hypertens 2009; 23(10): 654-8.
[] [PMID: 19279661]
Gandolfo C, Balestrino M, Bruno C, Finocchi C, Reale N. Validation of a simple method for atrial fibrillation screening in patients with stroke. Neurol Sci 2015; 36(9): 1675-8.
[] [PMID: 25926072]
Verberk WJ, Omboni S, Kollias A, Stergiou GS. Screening for atrial fibrillation with automated blood pressure measurement: Research evidence and practice recommendations. Int J Cardiol 2016; 203: 465-73.
[] [PMID: 26547741]
Wiesel J, Abraham S, Messineo FC. Screening for asymptomatic atrial fibrillation while monitoring the blood pressure at home: trial of regular versus irregular pulse for prevention of stroke (TRIPPS 2.0). Am J Cardiol 2013; 111(11): 1598-601.
[] [PMID: 23499278]
Allen J. Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement. Physiol Meas 2007; 28(3): R1-R39.
[] [PMID: 17322588]
Reiffel JA. Mass screening for atrial fibrillation: The hype, the methods, and the application. Am J Med 2019; 132(6): 668-70.
[] [PMID: 30658086]
Chan NY, Choy CC, Chan CK, Siu CW. Effectiveness of a nongovernmental organization-led large-scale community atrial fibrillation screening program using the smartphone electrocardiogram: An observational cohort study. Heart Rhythm 2018; 15(9): 1306-11.
[] [PMID: 29890321]
Perez MV, Mahaffey KW, Hedlin H, et al. Large-scale assessment of a smartwatch to identify atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2019; 381(20): 1909-17.
[] [PMID: 31722151]
O’Brien E, Asmar R, Beilin L, et al. European Society of Hypertension recommendations for conventional, ambulatory and home blood pressure measurement. J Hypertens 2003; 21(5): 821-48.
[] [PMID: 12714851]
O’Brien E, Waeber B, Parati G, Staessen J, Myers MG. Blood pressure measuring devices: Recommendations of the European Society of Hypertension. BMJ 2001; 322(7285): 531-6.
[] [PMID: 11230071]
Parati G, Stergiou GS, Asmar R, et al. European Society of Hypertension guidelines for blood pressure monitoring at home: A summary report of the Second International Consensus Conference on Home Blood Pressure Monitoring. J Hypertens 2008; 26(8): 1505-26.
[] [PMID: 18622223]
Stergiou GS, Kollias A, Destounis A, Tzamouranis D. Automated blood pressure measurement in atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hypertens 2012; 30(11): 2074-82.
[] [PMID: 22914573]
Pickering TG, Hall JE, Appel LJ, et al. Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals: part 1: Blood pressure measurement in humans: A statement for professionals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research. Circulation 2005; 111(5): 697-716.
[] [PMID: 15699287]
Pagonas N, Schmidt S, Eysel J, et al. Impact of atrial fibrillation on the accuracy of oscillometric blood pressure monitoring. Hypertension 2013; 62(3): 579-84.
[] [PMID: 23897073]
Clark CE, McDonagh STJ, McManus RJ. Accuracy of automated blood pressure measurements in the presence of atrial fibrillation: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hum Hypertens 2019; 33(5): 352-64.
[] [PMID: 30631126]
Welton NJ, McAleenan A, Thom HH, et al. Screening strategies for atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis. Health Technol Assess 2017; 21(29): 1-236.
[] [PMID: 28629510]
Okin PM, Wachtell K, Devereux RB, et al. Regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertension. JAMA 2006; 296(10): 1242-8.
[] [PMID: 16968848]
Verdecchia P, Staessen JA, Angeli F, et al. Usual versus tight control of systolic blood pressure in non-diabetic patients with hypertension (Cardio-Sis): an open-label randomised trial. Lancet 2009; 374(9689): 525-33.
[] [PMID: 19683638]
Madrid AH, Peng J, Zamora J, et al. The role of angiotensin receptor blockers and/or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in the prevention of atrial fibrillation in patients with cardiovascular diseases: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2004; 27(10): 1405-10.
[] [PMID: 15511250]
Healey JS, Baranchuk A, Crystal E, et al. Prevention of atrial fibrillation with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers: A meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45(11): 1832-9.
[] [PMID: 15936615]
Kalus JS, Coleman CI, White CM. The impact of suppressing the renin-angiotensin system on atrial fibrillation. J Clin Pharmacol 2006; 46(1): 21-8.
[] [PMID: 16397280]
Jibrini MB, Molnar J, Arora RR. Prevention of atrial fibrillation by way of abrogation of the renin-angiotensin system: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Ther 2008; 15(1): 36-43.
[] [PMID: 18223352]
Huang G, Xu JB, Liu JX, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers decrease the incidence of atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Invest 2011; 41(7): 719-33.
[] [PMID: 21250983]
Chaugai S, Meng WY, Ali Sepehry A. Effects of RAAS blockers on atrial fibrillation prophylaxis: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2016; 21(4): 388-404.
[] [PMID: 26817632]
Yusuf S, Teo K, Anderson C, Pogue J, Dyal L. Effects of the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients intolerant to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2008; 372(9644): 1174-83.
Salehian O, Healey J, Stambler B, et al. Impact of ramipril on the incidence of atrial fibrillation: Results of the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation study. Am Heart J 2007; 154(3): 448-53.
[] [PMID: 17719288]
Dewland TA, Soliman EZ, Yamal JM, et al. Pharmacologic prevention of incident atrial fibrillation: Long-term results from the allhat (antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial). Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2017; 10(12): e005463.
[] [PMID: 29212812]
Wachtell K, Lehto M, Gerdts E, et al. Angiotensin II receptor blockade reduces new-onset atrial fibrillation and subsequent stroke compared to atenolol: the Losartan Intervention For End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45(5): 712-9.
[] [PMID: 15734615]
Schmieder RE, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, McInnes GT, Zanchetti A, Hua TA. Reduced incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation with angiotensin II receptor blockade: The VALUE trial. J Hypertens 2008; 26(3): 403-11.
[] [PMID: 18300848]
Schaer BA, Schneider C, Jick SS, Conen D, Osswald S, Meier CR. Risk for incident atrial fibrillation in patients who receive antihypertensive drugs: a nested case-control study. Ann Intern Med 2010; 152(2): 78-84.
[] [PMID: 20083826]
Marott SC, Nielsen SF, Benn M, Nordestgaard BG. Antihypertensive treatment and risk of atrial fibrillation: A nationwide study. Eur Heart J 2014; 35(18): 1205-14.
[] [PMID: 24347316]
Kumagai K, Nakashima H, Urata H, Gondo N, Arakawa K, Saku K. Effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist on electrical and structural remodeling in atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 41(12): 2197-204.
[] [PMID: 12821247]
Okazaki H, Minamino T, Tsukamoto O, et al. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker prevents atrial structural remodeling in rats with hypertension induced by chronic nitric oxide inhibition. Hypertens Res 2006; 29(4): 277-84.
[] [PMID: 16778335]
Chen YJ, Chen YC, Tai CT, Yeh HI, Lin CI, Chen SA. Angiotensin II and angiotensin II receptor blocker modulate the arrhythmogenic activity of pulmonary veins. Br J Pharmacol 2006; 147(1): 12-22.
[] [PMID: 16273119]
Schneider MP, Hua TA, Böhm M, Wachtell K, Kjeldsen SE, Schmieder RE. Prevention of atrial fibrillation by Renin-Angiotensin system inhibition a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 55(21): 2299-307.
[] [PMID: 20488299]
Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hypertension 2018; 71(6): e13-e115.
[PMID: 29133356]
Kühlkamp V, Schirdewan A, Stangl K, Homberg M, Ploch M, Beck OA. Use of metoprolol CR/XL to maintain sinus rhythm after conversion from persistent atrial fibrillation: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 36(1): 139-46.
[] [PMID: 10898425]
Nasr IA, Bouzamondo A, Hulot JS, Dubourg O, Le Heuzey JY, Lechat P. Prevention of atrial fibrillation onset by beta-blocker treatment in heart failure: A meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 2007; 28(4): 457-62.
[] [PMID: 17289748]
Aksnes TA, Flaa A, Strand A, Kjeldsen SE. Prevention of atrial fibrillation in hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep 2008; 10(3): 175-81.
[] [PMID: 18765086]
Tieleman RG, De Langen C, Van Gelder IC, et al. Verapamil reduces tachycardia-induced electrical remodeling of the atria. Circulation 1997; 95(7): 1945-53.
[] [PMID: 9107184]
De Simone A, Stabile G, Vitale DF, et al. Pretreatment with verapamil in patients with persistent or chronic atrial fibrillation who underwent electrical cardioversion. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999; 34(3): 810-4.
[] [PMID: 10483964]
De Simone A, De Pasquale M, De Matteis C, et al. VErapamil plus antiarrhythmic drugs reduce atrial fibrillation recurrences after an electrical cardioversion (VEPARAF Study). Eur Heart J 2003; 24(15): 1425-9.
[] [PMID: 12909071]
Van Noord T, Van Gelder IC, Tieleman RG, et al. VERDICT: the Verapamil versus Digoxin Cardioversion Trial: A randomized study on the role of calcium lowering for maintenance of sinus rhythm after cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2001; 12(7): 766-9.
[] [PMID: 11469424]
Zardo F, Antonini-Canterin F, Brieda M, et al. Can short-term verapamil therapy reduce the recurrence of atrial fibrillation after successful low energy intracardiac cardioversion? Ital Heart J 2001; 2(7): 513-8.
[PMID: 11501960]
Zannad F, Alla F, Dousset B, Perez A, Pitt B. Limitation of excessive extracellular matrix turnover may contribute to survival benefit of spironolactone therapy in patients with congestive heart failure: insights from the randomized aldactone evaluation study (RALES). Circulation 2000; 102(22): 2700-6.
[] [PMID: 11094035]
Mayyas F, Alzoubi KH, Van Wagoner DR. Impact of aldosterone antagonists on the substrate for atrial fibrillation: Aldosterone promotes oxidative stress and atrial structural/electrical remodeling. Int J Cardiol 2013; 168(6): 5135-42.
[] [PMID: 23993726]
Neefs J, van den Berg NWE, Limpens J, et al. Response to “comment on “aldosterone pathway blockade to prevent atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and meta-analysis” by Neefs et al.”. Int J Cardiol 2017; 242: 23.
[] [PMID: 28619326]
Liu T, Korantzopoulos P, Shao Q, Zhang Z, Letsas KP, Li G. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and atrial fibrillation: A meta-analysis. Europace 2016; 18(5): 672-8.
[] [PMID: 26705563]
Kowey PR, Marinchak RA, Rials SJ, Filart RA. Management of atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertension. J Hum Hypertens 1997; 11(11): 699-707.
[] [PMID: 9416981]
Risk factors for stroke and efficacy of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation. Analysis of pooled data from five randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154(13): 1449-57.
[] [PMID: 8018000]
Odutayo A, Wong CX, Hsiao AJ, Hopewell S, Altman DG, Emdin CA. Atrial fibrillation and risks of cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and death: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2016; 354: i4482.
[] [PMID: 27599725]
Okin PM, Hille DA, Larstorp AC, et al. Effect of lower on-treatment systolic blood pressure on the risk of atrial fibrillation in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 2015; 66(2): 368-73.
[] [PMID: 26056336]
Lip GY, Frison L, Grind M. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blockade use in relation to outcomes in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation. J Intern Med 2007; 261(6): 577-86.
[] [PMID: 17547713]
Wachtell K, Hornestam B, Lehto M, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients with a history of atrial fibrillation: The Losartan Intervention For End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45(5): 705-11.
[] [PMID: 15734614]
Ezekowitz MD, Bridgers SL, James KE, et al. Warfarin in the prevention of stroke associated with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 1992; 327(20): 1406-12.
[] [PMID: 1406859]
López-López JA, Sterne JAC, Thom HHZ, et al. Oral anticoagulants for prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation: Systematic review, network meta-analysis, and cost effectiveness analysis. BMJ 2017; 359: j5058.
[] [PMID: 29183961]
Landefeld CS, Beyth RJ. Anticoagulant-related bleeding: Clinical epidemiology, prediction, and prevention. Am J Med 1993; 95(3): 315-28.
[] [PMID: 8368229]
Hart RG, Boop BS, Anderson DC. Oral anticoagulants and intracranial hemorrhage. Facts and hypotheses. Stroke 1995; 26(8): 1471-7.
[] [PMID: 7631356]
The Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. Bleeding during antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation. Arch Intern Med 1996; 156(4): 409-16.
[] [PMID: 8607726]
Gage BF, Yan Y, Milligan PE, et al. Clinical classification schemes for predicting hemorrhage: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation (NRAF). Am Heart J 2006; 151(3): 713-9.
[] [PMID: 16504638]
Pisters R, Lane DA, Nieuwlaat R, de Vos CB, Crijns HJ, Lip GY. A novel user-friendly score (HAS-BLED) to assess 1-year risk of major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation: The Euro Heart Survey. Chest 2010; 138(5): 1093-100.
[] [PMID: 20299623]
Senoo K, Proietti M, Lane DA, Lip GY. Evaluation of the has-bled, atria, and orbit bleeding risk scores in patients with atrial fibrillation taking warfarin. Am J Med 2016; 129(6): 600-7.
[] [PMID: 26482233]
Rao MP, Halvorsen S, Wojdyla D, et al. Blood Pressure Control and Risk of Stroke or Systemic Embolism in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Results From the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) Trial. J Am Heart Assoc 2015; 4(12): e002015.
[] [PMID: 26627878]
Proietti M, Romiti GF, Olshansky B, Lip GYH. Systolic blood pressure visit-to-visit variability and major adverse outcomes in atrial fibrillation: The AFFIRM study (atrial fibrillation follow-up investigation of rhythm management). Hypertension 2017; 70(5): 949-58.
[] [PMID: 28974568]
Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009; 361(12): 1139-51.
[] [PMID: 19717844]
Granger CB, Alexander JH, McMurray JJ, et al. Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011; 365(11): 981-92.
[] [PMID: 21870978]
Patel MR, Mahaffey KW, Garg J, et al. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011; 365(10): 883-91.
[] [PMID: 21830957]
Chen LY, Shen WK. Epidemiology of atrial fibrillation: A current perspective. Heart Rhythm 2007; 4(3)(Suppl.): S1-6.
[] [PMID: 17336876]
Issac TT, Dokainish H, Lakkis NM. Role of inflammation in initiation and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation: A systematic review of the published data. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 50(21): 2021-8.
[] [PMID: 18021867]
Guo Y, Lip GY, Apostolakis S. Inflammation in atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012; 60(22): 2263-70.
[] [PMID: 23194937]
Linz D, van Hunnik A, Ukena C, et al. Renal denervation: effects on atrial electrophysiology and arrhythmias. Clin Res Cardiol 2014; 103(10): 765-74.
[] [PMID: 24682223]
Shah SR, Abbasi Z, Fatima M, et al. Canakinumab and cardiovascular outcomes: Results of the CANTOS trial. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2018; 8(1): 21-2.
[] [PMID: 29441161]
Mitchell GF, Vasan RS, Keyes MJ, et al. Pulse pressure and risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation. JAMA 2007; 297(7): 709-15.
[] [PMID: 17312290]
Larstorp AC, Ariansen I, Gjesdal K, et al. Association of pulse pressure with new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy: The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint (LIFE) reduction in hypertension study. Hypertension 2012; 60(2): 347-53.
[] [PMID: 22753219]
Sarıkaya S, Sahin S, Oztürk S, et al. Detection of atrial electrical and mechanical dysfunction in non-dipper pre-hypertensive subjects. Clin Exp Hypertens 2014; 36(7): 465-70.
[] [PMID: 24164475]
Cagirci G, Cay S, Karakurt O, et al. P-wave dispersion increases in prehypertension. Blood Press 2009; 18(1-2): 51-4.
[] [PMID: 19353411]
Wright JT Jr, Williamson JD, Whelton PK, et al. A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med 2015; 373(22): 2103-16.
[] [PMID: 26551272]
Gillman MW. Primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2015; 131(7): 599-601.
[] [PMID: 25605661]
Weintraub WS, Daniels SR, Burke LE, et al. Value of primordial and primary prevention for cardiovascular disease: A policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2011; 124(8): 967-90.
[] [PMID: 21788592]
Gorenek B, Pelliccia A, Benjamin EJ, et al. European heart rhythm association (EHRA)/European association of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation (EACPR) position paper on how to prevent atrial fibrillation endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) and Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS). Europace 2017; 19(2): 190-225.
[PMID: 28175283]
Pedersen OD, Bagger H, Kober L, Torp-Pedersen C. Trandolapril reduces the incidence of atrial fibrillation after acute myocardial infarction in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation 1999; 100(4): 376-80.
[] [PMID: 10421597]
Pizzetti F, Turazza FM, Franzosi MG, et al. Incidence and prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation in acute myocardial infarction: The GISSI-3 data. Heart 2001; 86(5): 527-32.
[] [PMID: 11602545]
Vermes E, Tardif JC, Bourassa MG, et al. Enalapril decreases the incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with left ventricular dysfunction: Insight from the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) trials. Circulation 2003; 107(23): 2926-31.
[] [PMID: 12771010]
Maggioni AP, Latini R, Carson PE, et al. Valsartan reduces the incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure: Results from the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT). Am Heart J 2005; 149(3): 548-57.
[] [PMID: 15864246]
Ducharme A, Swedberg K, Pfeffer MA, et al. Prevention of atrial fibrillation in patients with symptomatic chronic heart failure by candesartan in the Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) program. Am Heart J 2006; 152(1): 86-92.
[] [PMID: 16838426]
Van Den Berg MP, Crijns HJ, Van Veldhuisen DJ, Griep N, De Kam PJ, Lie KI. Effects of lisinopril in patients with heart failure and chronic atrial fibrillation. J Card Fail 1995; 1(5): 355-63.
[] [PMID: 12836710]
Madrid AH, Bueno MG, Rebollo JM, et al. Use of irbesartan to maintain sinus rhythm in patients with long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation: a prospective and randomized study. Circulation 2002; 106(3): 331-6.
[] [PMID: 12119249]
Ueng KC, Tsai TP, Yu WC, et al. Use of enalapril to facilitate sinus rhythm maintenance after external cardioversion of long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation. Results of a prospective and controlled study. Eur Heart J 2003; 24(23): 2090-8.
[] [PMID: 14643269]
Madrid AH, Marín IM, Cervantes CE, et al. Prevention of recurrences in patients with lone atrial fibrillation. The dose-dependent effect of angiotensin II receptor blockers. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2004; 5(3): 114-20.
[] [PMID: 15526246]
Tveit A, Grundvold I, Olufsen M, et al. Candesartan in the prevention of relapsing atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol 2007; 120(1): 85-91.
[] [PMID: 17113170]
Disertori M, Latini R, Barlera S, et al. Valsartan for prevention of recurrent atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009; 360(16): 1606-17.
[] [PMID: 19369667]
Murray KT, Rottman JN, Arbogast PG, et al. Inhibition of angiotensin II signaling and recurrence of atrial fibrillation in AFFIRM. Heart Rhythm 2004; 1(6): 669-75.
[] [PMID: 15851238]
Yin Y, Dalal D, Liu Z, et al. Prospective randomized study comparing amiodarone vs. amiodarone plus losartan vs. amiodarone plus perindopril for the prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrence in patients with lone paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2006; 27(15): 1841-6.
[] [PMID: 16825288]
Fogari R, Mugellini A, Destro M, et al. Losartan and prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrence in hypertensive patients. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2006; 47(1): 46-50.
[] [PMID: 16424784]
Belluzzi F, Sernesi L, Preti P, Salinaro F, Fonte ML, Perlini S. Prevention of recurrent lone atrial fibrillation by the angiotensin-II converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril in normotensive patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 53(1): 24-9.
[] [PMID: 19118720]
Fogari R, Derosa G, Ferrari I, et al. Effect of valsartan and ramipril on atrial fibrillation recurrence and P-wave dispersion in hypertensive patients with recurrent symptomatic lone atrial fibrillation. Am J Hypertens 2008; 21(9): 1034-9.
[] [PMID: 18566593]
Yusuf S, Healey JS, Pogue J, et al. Irbesartan in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011; 364(10): 928-38.
[] [PMID: 21388310]
Yamashita T, Inoue H, Okumura K, et al. Randomized trial of angiotensin II-receptor blocker vs. dihydropiridine calcium channel blocker in the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with hypertension (J-RHYTHM II study). Europace 2011; 13(4): 473-9.
[] [PMID: 21148662]
Goette A, Schön N, Kirchhof P, et al. Angiotensin II-antagonist in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (ANTIPAF) trial. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2012; 5(1): 43-51.
[] [PMID: 22157519]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy