Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused a global health catastrophe by affecting the human population around the globe. Unfortunately, there is no specific medication or treatment currently available for COVID-19.
Objective: It is extremely important to find effective drug treatment in order to put an end to this pandemic period and return to normal daily life. In this context and considering the urgency, rather than focusing on the discovery of novel compounds, it is critical to explore the effects of existing herbal agents with proven antiviral properties on the virus.
Methods: Molecular docking studies were carried out employing three different methods, Glide extra precision (XP) docking, induced fit docking (IFD), and molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area (MM/GBSA), to determine the potential antiviral and antibacterial effects of 58 phytochemicals present in Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymbra spicata, Satureja thymbra, and Stachys lavandulifolia plants against the main protease (Mpro) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) enzymes.
Results: 7 compounds stood out among all the molecules, showing very high binding affinities. According to our findings, the substances chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid, and rosmanol exhibited extremely significant binding affinities for both Mpro and ACE2 enzymes. Furthermore, carnosic acid and alphacadinol showed potent anti-Mpro activity, whereas caffeic acid and carvacrol exhibited promising anti- ACE2 activity.
Conclusion: Chlorogenic acid, rosmarinic acid, rosmanol, carnosic acid, alpha-cadinol, caffeic acid, and carvacrol compounds have been shown to be powerful anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents in docking simulations against Mpro and ACE2 enzymes, as well as ADME investigations.
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