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Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1871-5206
ISSN (Online): 1875-5992

Mini-Review Article

Is It Time to Consider the Androgen Receptor as a Therapeutic Target in Breast Cancer?

Author(s): Melika Kooshki Forooshani, Rosa Scarpitta, Giuseppe Nicolò Fanelli, Mario Miccoli, Antonio Giuseppe Naccarato and Cristian Scatena*

Volume 22, Issue 4, 2022

Published on: 18 January, 2022

Page: [775 - 786] Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/1871520621666211201150818

Price: $65


Breast Cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease and the most prevalent malignant tumor in women worldwide. The majority of BC cases are positive for Estrogen Receptor (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PgR), both known to be involved in cancer pathogenesis, progression, and invasion. In line with this, hormonal deprivation therapy appears to be a useful tool and an effective treatment for these BC subtypes. Unfortunately, prognosis among patients with hormone-negative tumors or therapy-refractory and metastatic patients remains poor. Novel biomarkers are urgently needed in order to predict the course of the disease, make better therapy decisions and improve the overall survival of patients. In this respect, the Androgen Receptor (AR), a member of the hormonal nuclear receptor superfamily and ER and PgR, emerges as an interesting feature widely expressed in human BCs. Despite the advances, the precise tumorigenic mechanism of AR and the role of its endogenous ligands are yet not well-understood. In this review, we aim to elaborate on the prognostic impact of AR expression and current AR-targeting approaches based on previous studies investigating AR's role in different BC subtypes.

Keywords: Breast Cancer (BC), Androgen Receptor (AR), clinical trial, Disease-Free Survival (DFS), molecular targeted therapy, Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC).

Graphical Abstract
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