The progression of HIV disease has been markedly slowed by the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, substantial genetic variation was observed to occur among different people in the decay rate of viral loads caused by HAART. The characterization of specific genes involved in HIV dynamics is central to design personalized drugs for the prevention of this disease, but usually cannot be addressed by experimental methods alone rather than require the help of mathematical and statistical methods. A novel statistical model has been recently developed to detect genetic variants that are responsible for the shape of HAART-induced viral decay curves. This model was employed to an HIV/AIDS trial, which led to the identification of a major genetic determinant that triggers an effect on HIV dynamics. This detected major genetic determinant also affects several clinically important parameters, such as half-lives of infected cells and HIV eradication times.