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Recent Advances in Anti-Infective Drug Discovery

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2772-4344
ISSN (Online): 2772-4352

Research Article

Mixed Sexually Transmitted Infections in Infertile Couples: Empirical Treatment and Influence on Semen Quality

Author(s): Mykola Yasynetskyi, Oleg Banyra*, Oleg Nikitin, Iryna Ventskivska, Vadym Kozlov, Mykola Kvach and Andrii Borzhievskyy

Volume 16, Issue 3, 2021

Published on: 13 December, 2021

Page: [227 - 236] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/2772434416666211129105145

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) are common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that are diagnosed in infertile couples (cps). In cases with their simultaneous presence in a patient (mixed STI, MSTIs), treatment is complicated by the different sensitivity of microorganisms to antibacterial drugs. Moreover, in cases of complicated infections, the empirical treatment should be started before obtaining the results of drug susceptibilities.

Objective: The objective of the current study is to find the effective and well-tolerated combination of drugs for the empirical antibacterial treatment of mixed STIs presented by TV, MG and UU in infertile couples. We also aimed to establish the influence of mixed STIs on semen quality.

Methods: Our prospective study included 154 infertile couples (308 patients) with confirmed symptomatic MSTIs in one of the couples caused by the simultaneous presence of TV, MG and UU. All couples were randomized on three groups for empirical treatment: Group 1 (n=49 cps, 98 pts) who were treated by initial prescribing of anti-trichomoniasis drug Secnidazole, 2.0 g po followed by Azythromycin 500 mg on day 1 continuing by 250 mg on days 2-7; Group 2 (n=52 cps, 104 pts: Secnidazole, 2.0 g po followed by Josamycin 1000 mg bid for 12 days); Group 3 (n=53 cps, 106 pts: Secnidazole, 2.0 g po followed by Moxifloxacin 400 mg once daily for 12 days). The endpoints were clinical and microbiological cure rates as well as the frequency of side-effects in analyzed groups. We determined the basic parameters of the spermogram and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation levels in 59 patients with MSTIs before and at the 3rd, 6th and 9th month after pathogens eradication comparing them with results in 63 healthy sperm donors.

Results: After the treatment, clinical cure rates in analyzed groups were 82.6% (Group 1) vs. 96.1% (Group 2) vs. 92.3% (Group 3). Microbiological cure rates (UU+MG) were 73.9% vs. 97.1% vs. 84.5% correspondingly (p<0.05). TV microbiological cure rates were 97.8% vs. 98.0% vs. 96.1% (p>0.05). Side-effects were registered in 28.6% vs. 12.5% vs. 18.9% cases correspondingly (p<0.05). In MSTIs patients, we registered the increasing DNA fragmentation rates, leucocytes count and decreasing semen volume, motility, vitality, sperm concentration, total spermatozoa number and number of spermatozoa with normal morphology. At the 6th month after complete pathogens eradication, these parameters approached normal values.

Conclusion: At the present time, the combination of Secnidazole+Josamycin can be considered the most effective and well-tolerated for the empirical treatment in patients with MSTIs presented by TV, MG and UU. Complete eradication of these MSTIs in males improves their semen parameters.

Keywords: Mixed sexually transmitted infections, empirical treatment, trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis, mycoplasmosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium.

Graphical Abstract
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