Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a common child neurobehavioral disorder whose pathogenesis is not completely understood. However, some evidence indicates a crucial link between this disorder and the degree of oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinol) is an antioxidant that may play a significant role in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as an add-on drug treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Methods: Sixty children, aged 6-16 years, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, non-responders to atomoxetine treatment for 6 months, were included in this double-blind, randomized, and controlled study. Group 1 received atomoxetine plus coenzyme Q10, and group 2 received atomoxetine plus placebo for 6 months. Follow-up by CONNERS parent rating scale questionnaire (CPRS-48) was performed before and after 1, 3, and 6 months of treatment, and any drug-related side effects were reported.
Results: The addition of coenzyme Q10 to atomoxetine in group 1 improved symptoms in a shorter time with minimal adverse effects. Group 1 showed improvement of about 33.87% in CPRS-48 total score versus 18.24% in group 2. There was a statistically significant decrease in CPRS-48 total score and its three subscales (learning problems, impulsive hyperactive subscale, and 10-items hyperactivity index) in group 1 versus group 2 after six months of treatment (p-value <0.001).
Conclusion: Coenzyme Q10 has an important role as an add-on drug treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by improving symptoms, particularly hyperactivity, and in minimizing atomoxetine adverse effects.
Trial Registration: The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov/). Registration identification number: NCT04216186.