Background: Vitamins are the micronutrients required for boosting the immune system and managing any future infection. Vitamins are involved in neurogenesis, a defense mechanism working in neurons, metabolic reactions, neuronal survival, and neuronal transmission. Their deficiency leads to abnormal functions in the brain like oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of proteins (synuclein, Aβ plaques), neurodegeneration, and excitotoxicity.
Methods: In this review, we have compiled various reports collected from PubMed, Scholar Google, Research gate, and Science direct. The findings were evaluated, compiled, and represented in this manuscript.
Conclusion: The deficiency of vitamins in the body causes various neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington's disease, and depression. We have discussed the role of vitamins in neurological disorders and the normal human body. Depression is linked to a deficiency of vitamin-C and vitamin B. In the case of Alzheimer’s disease, there is a lack of vitamin- B1, B12, and vitamin-A, which results in Aβ-plaques. Similarly, in Parkinson’s disease, vitamin- D deficiency leads to a decrease in the level of dopamine, and imbalance in vitamin D leads to accumulation of synuclein. In MS, vitamin-C and vitamin-D deficiency causes demyelination of neurons. In Huntington's disease, vitamin- C deficiency decreases the antioxidant level, enhances oxidative stress, and disrupts the glucose cycle. vitamin B5 deficiency in Huntington's disease disrupts the synthesis of acetylcholine and hormones in the brain.