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Current Rheumatology Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-3971
ISSN (Online): 1875-6360

Research Article

Association of Serum and Crevicular Fluid Dickkopf-1 Levels with Disease Activity and Periodontitis in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

Author(s): Consuelo Romero-Sánchez*, Sebastián Giraldo , Ana María Heredia-P , Juliette De Avila, Lorena Chila-Moreno, John Londoño , Rafael Valle-Oñate, Juan Manuel Bello-Gualtero and Wilson Bautista-Molano

Volume 18, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 29 December, 2021

Page: [124 - 135] Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/1573397117666211116105118

Price: $65


Background: The aim of this study was to assess DKK-1 levels, in Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) and serum, as a biomarker for bone loss and disease activity in periodontitis and early RA (eRA).

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we obtained serum and GCF from 10 interproximal sites (Distal Buccal I/S, Mesio Buccal I/S, Distal Palatal/Lingual, Mesio Palatal/Lingual) according to the highest degree of inflammation by a patient for 240 sites from eRA patients. Patients received a periodontal assessment, a radiographic evaluation, tomography of interproximal sites, and DKK1 levels were determined by ELISA. Comparisons were performed by the Mann-Whitney U test and analysis by Chi2 test, and a logistic regression model was applied.

Results: The mean age was 46.33 ± 12.0 years, the Disease Activity Score (DAS-28-ESR) was 4.08 ± 1.4. Periodontitis was present in 65.2% of the patients, and 59.6% of these patients had bone loss in interproximal sites.

Discussion: Higher GCF-DKK1 levels were associated with serum-DKK1 (OR:2.41 IC95% 1.14-5.09, p=0.021) and were related with DAS28-ESR (p=0.001), Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID 3) (p=0.001), and tender joints (p=0.040). Foot bone erosion and juxta-articular osteopenia were associated with high levels of serum-DKK1 (p=0.009 and 0.001, respectively). Serum-DKK1 were associated with SDAI (OR: 2.38 IC95% 1.03-5.52, p=0.043), RAPID 3 (p=0.001), and rheumatoid factor (p=0.018).

The GCF-DKK1 levels were associated with periodontal bone loss (p=0.011), periodontitis (p=0.070) and its severity (OR: 2.58 IC95% 2.28-7.28, p=0.001). Bone loss was more frequent in buccal sites (73.5%) and was associated with increased levels of DKK1 (p=0.033).

Conclusion: In the early stages of the eRA disease, serum and GCF-DKK1 could be a biomarker for clinical disease activity and periodontal and articular bone erosion.

Keywords: Early rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis, Dickkopf-1 protein, bone loss, gingival crevicular fluid, serum.

Graphical Abstract
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