The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been one of the revolutionary developments and has led to the advent of new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities for the management of cancer. In this regard, miRNA dysregulation has been shown to play a critical role in various stages of tumorigenesis, including tumor invasion, metastasis as well as angiogenesis. Therefore, miRNA profiling can provide accurate fingerprints for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic platforms. This review discusses the recent discoveries of miRNA- based tools for early detection of cancer as well as disease monitoring in cancers that are common, like breast, lung, hepatic, colorectal, oral and brain cancer. Based on the involvement of miRNA in different cancers as oncogenic miRNA or tumor suppressor miRNA, the treatment with miRNA inhibitors or mimics is recommended. However, the stability and targeted delivery of miRNA remain the major limitations of miRNA delivery. In relation to this, several nanoparticle-based delivery systems have been reported which have effectively delivered the miRNA mimics or inhibitors and showed the potential for transforming these advanced delivery systems from bench to bedside in the treatment of cancer metastasis and chemoresistance. Based on this, we attempted to uncover recently reported advanced nanotherapeutic approaches to deliver the miRNAs in the management of different cancers.