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Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1568-0266
ISSN (Online): 1873-4294

Review Article

Garlic (Allium sativum L.): Its Chemistry, Nutritional Composition, Toxicity, and Anticancer Properties

Author(s): Abdur Rauf, Tareq Abu-Izneid, Muthu Thiruvengadam*, Muhammad Imran, Ahmed Olatunde, Mohammad Ali Shariati, Saud Bawazeer, Saima Naz, Samira Shirooie, Ana Sanches-Silva, Umar Farooq and Galiya Kazhybayeva

Volume 22, Issue 11, 2022

Published on: 08 December, 2021

Page: [957 - 972] Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/1568026621666211105094939

Price: $65


The current review discuss the chemistry, nutritional composition, toxicity, and biological functions of garlic and its bioactive compounds against various types of cancers via different anticancer mechanisms. Several scientific documents were found in reliable literature and searched in databases viz Science Direct, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Research Gate were carried out using keywords such as “garlic”, “garlic bioactive compounds”, “anticancer mechanisms of garlic”, “nutritional composition of garlic”, and others. Garlic contains several phytoconstituents with activities against cancer, and compounds such as diallyl trisulfide (DATS), allicin, and diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl sulfide (DAS), and allyl mercaptan (AM). The influence of numerous garlic- derived products, phytochemicals, and nanoformulations on the liver, oral, prostate, breast, gastric, colorectal, skin, and pancreatic cancers has been studied. Based on our search, the bioactive molecules in garlic were found to inhibit the various phases of cancer. Moreover, the compounds in this plant also abrogate the peroxidation of lipids, activity of nitric oxide synthase, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), protein kinase C, and regulate cell cycle and survival signaling cascades. Hence, garlic and its bioactive molecules exhibit the aforementioned mechanistic actions, and thus, they could be used to inhibit the induction, development, and progression of cancer. The review describes the nutritional composition of garlic, its bioactive molecules, and nanoformulations against various types of cancers, as well as the potential for developing these agents as antitumor drugs.

Keywords: Garlic, Diallyl disulfide, Allicin, Cancer, Antineoplastic action, Toxicity.

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