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CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1871-5273
ISSN (Online): 1996-3181

Review Article

Tremor and Rigidity in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: Emphasis on Epidemiology, Pathophysiology and Contributing Factors

(E-pub Ahead of Print)
Published on: 08 December, 2021
Author(s): Shivam Kumar, Lav Goyal and Shamsher Singh*
Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prominent neurodegenerative movement disorder after Alzheimer’s disease, involving 2-3% of the population aged above 65 years. This is mainly triggered by the depletion of dopaminergic neurons located in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) in the region of basal ganglia. At present, diagnosis for symptoms of PD is clinical, contextual, unspecified and therapeutically incomprehensive. Analysis of various causes of PD is essential for an accurate examination of the disease. Among the different causes, such as tremors and rigidity, unresponsiveness to the current treatment approach contributes to mortality. In the present review article, we describe various key factors of pathogenesis and physiology associated with tremors and rigidity necessary for the treatment of PI (postural instability) in patients with PD. Additionally, several reports showing early tremor and rigidity causes, particularly age, cortex lesions, basal ganglia lesions, genetic abnormalities, weakened reflexes, nutrition, fear of fall, and altered biomechanics, have been explored. By summarizing the factors that contribute to the disease, histopathological studies can assess rigidity and tremor in PD. With a clear understanding of the contributing factors, various prospective studies can be done to assess the incidence of rigidity and tremors.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease (PD), PD diagnosis, tremor dominant (TD), rigidity, tremor dominant, snpc.


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