Early pharmacoepidemiological studies suggested that Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) might increase the risk of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and non-AD related dementias. These findings were supported by preclinical studies, specifically stressing the proamyloidogenic and indirect anticholinergic effects of PPIs. However, further large-scale pharmacoepidemiological studies showed inconsistent results on the association between PPIs and dementia. Pharmacodynamically, these findings might be related to the LXR/RXR-mediated amyloid clearance effect and anti-inflammatory action of PPIs. Further aspects that influence PPI effects on AD are related to patient- specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenomic characteristics. In conclusion, a personalized (individualized) medicinal approach is necessary to model and predict the potential harmful or beneficial effects of PPIs in AD and non-AD-related dementias in the future.