Drug delivery to the brain has been a significant challenge in treating neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier, which primarily obstructs the access of drugs and biomolecules into the brain. Several methods to overcome the blood-brain barrier have been employed, such as chemical disruption, surgical intervention, focused ultrasound, intranasal delivery, and the use of nanocarriers. Nanocarrier systems remain the method of choice and have shown promising results over the past decade to achieve better drug targeting. Polymeric nanocarriers and lipidic nanoparticles act as a carrier system providing better encapsulation of drugs, site-specific delivery, increased bioavailability, and sustained release of drugs. The surface modifications and functionalization of these nanocarrier systems have greatly facilitated targeted drug delivery. The safety and efficacy of these nanocarrier systems have been ascertained by several in vitro and in vivo models. In the present review, we have elaborated on recent developments of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system for Alzheimer's disease, explicitly focusing on polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles.