Background: Ground-glass Opacity (GGO) and Consolidation Opacity (CLO) are the common CT lung opacities, and their heterogeneity may have potential for prognosis ofcoronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients.
Objective: This study aimed to estimate clinical outcomes in individual COVID-19 patients using histogram heterogeneity analysis based on CT opacities.
Methods: 71 COVID-19 cases’ medical records were retrospectively reviewed from a designated hospital in Wuhan, China, from January 24th to February 28th at the early stage of the pandemic. Two characteristic lung abnormity opacities, GGO and CLO, were drawn on CT images to identify the heterogeneity using quantitative histogram analysis. The parameters (mean, mode, kurtosis, and skewness) were derived from histograms to evaluate the accuracy of clinical classification and outcome prediction. Nomograms were built to predict the risk of death and median length of hospital stays (LOS), respectively.
Results: A total of 57 COVID-19 cases were eligible for the study cohort after excluding 14 cases. The highest lung abnormalities were GGO mixed with CLO in both the survival populations (26 in 42, 61.9%) and died population (10 in 15, 66.7%). The best performance heterogeneity parameters to discriminate severe type from mild/moderate counterparts were as follows: GGO_skewness: specificity= 66.67%, sensitivity=78.12%, AUC=0.706; CLO_mean: specificity=70.00%, sensitivity= 76.92%, and AUC=0.746. Nomogram based on histogram parameters can predict the individual risk of death and the prolonged median LOS of COVID-19 patients. C-indexes were 0.763 and 0.888 for risk of death and prolonged median LOS, respectively.
Conclusion: Histogram analysis method based on GGO and CLO has the ability for individual risk prediction in COVID-19 patients.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2017.03.018] [PMID: 28624402]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/ryct.2020200152] [PMID: 33778571]