Breast cancer remains one of the most common cancers in women worldwide, and despite significant improvements in treatment modalities, the prognosis of this cancer is still poor. Herbs and plant extracts have been associated with various health benefits, and traditional folk medicine is still receiving great interest among patients as proven by accumulated records, tolerable side effects of herbal compounds compared to their synthetic counterparts, and low cost. Curcumin is a polyphenol identified as the main active ingredient in turmeric and has been used in the treatment of various diseases and ailments. Additionally, the pharmacological activities of curcumin on many cancers have been investigated substantially due to its ability to regulate many signaling pathways involved in cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, the low solubility and bioavailability of curcumin limit its benefits, urging the need for new curcumin formulations and delivery systems. Nanotechnology has been widely publicized in cancer treatment not only to overcome the limitations of poorly soluble and physiologically unstable compounds but also to improve the delivery of the drug to the diseased site and cellular uptake. In this review, we summarized the main anti-tumor effect of curcumin and its mode of action on breast cancer and focused on the anticancer efficacy of various and recent curcumin nanoformulations and delivery systems. Such nanotechnological systems could pave the way to address a new future direction in this research area, enhancing the therapeutic potential of curcumin in the treatment of breast cancer. In the next few years, there will be more focus on developing curcumin-based materials for breast cancer treatment.