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Current Vascular Pharmacology

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1570-1611
ISSN (Online): 1875-6212

Systematic Review Article

Thromboprophylaxis in Patients with COVID-19: Systematic Review of National and International Clinical Guidance Reports

Author(s): Konstantinos G. Kyriakoulis, Anastasios Kollias*, Ioannis G . Kyriakoulis, Ioanna A. Kyprianou, Chrysso Papachrysostomou, Panagiotis Makaronis, Rafail A. Kotronias, Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios, Ioannis Toskas and Dimitri P. Mikhailidis

Volume 20, Issue 1, 2022

Published on: 24 August, 2021

Page: [96 - 110] Pages: 15

DOI: 10.2174/1570161119666210824160332

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) is common among patients with severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Anticoagulation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients has been associated with survival benefit; however, the optimal thromboprophylaxis strategy has not yet been defined.

Objective: To identify published guidance reports by national and international societies regarding thromboprophylaxis strategies in COVID-19 patients in different settings (outpatients, hospitalized, post-discharge).

Methods: A systematic review of the literature (Pubmed/EMBASE) was conducted independently by two investigators.

Results: Among 1942 initially identified articles, 33 guidance documents were included: 20 published by national and 13 by international societies. These documents provide recommendations mainly for hospitalized (97% of reports) and post-discharge (75%) COVID-19 patients, and less so for outpatients (34%). Thrombotic and bleeding risk stratification prior to any treatment decision is the cornerstone of all suggested thromboprophylaxis strategies; 81% of the documents recommend thromboprophylaxis for all hospitalized patients with a prophylactic dosage of low molecular weight heparin irrespective of VTE risk. Intermediate or therapeutic dose intensity is recommended in high VTE risk patients by 56% and 28% of documents, respectively. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis is suggested in case of high bleeding risk or contraindication to pharmacological thromboprophylaxis (59% of documents). Extended pharmacological thromboprophylaxis is recommended for patients with high VTE risk after hospital discharge (63% of documents). For non-hospitalized outpatients, 28% of documents recommend pharmacological thromboprophylaxis for high VTE risk.

Conclusion: The current guidance identifies thromboprophylaxis in COVID-19 patients, especially during hospitalization, as of major importance for the prevention of VTE. Recommendations are derived from limited evidence from observational studies.

Keywords: Anticoagulation, COVID-19, deep vein thrombosis, guidelines, pulmonary embolism, thromboprophylaxis, venous thromboembolism.

Graphical Abstract
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