Introduction: Dementia becomes a major public health challenge in both the Czech Republic and worldwide. The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Objective: We conducted two successive epidemiological projects in 2012-2015 and 2016-2019. Their aim was to study the effect of selected potential genetic, vascular and psychosocial risk factors on the development of AD by comparing their frequencies in AD patients and controls.
Methods: Epidemiological case-control studies were conducted. In total, data from 2106 participants (1096 cases, 1010 controls) were analyzed.
Results: Three times more females than males suffered from AD. The highest proportion of cases were those with primary education, unlike controls. There were statistically significantly more manual workers among cases than among controls. Of selected vascular risk factors, coronary heart disease was found to be statistically significantly more frequent in cases than in controls. The onset of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was earlier in controls than in cases. As for hobbies and interests, there were statistically significant differences in physical activity, reading and solving crosswords between the groups, with these activities being more common in controls.
Conclusion: The prevalence of chronic neurodegenerative diseases, in particular AD, is currently increasing. Given the aging of the population, these conditions may be expected to rise in prevalence. Potential risk of AD needs to be studied, analyzed and confirmed; a detailed knowledge of the risks of AD and early detection of the pathology may therefore be very beneficial for prevention and early treatment of this condition.
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