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Current Neuropharmacology

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1570-159X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6190

Review Article

Extracellular Vesicles, Stem Cells and the Role of miRNAs in Neurodegeneration

Author(s): Ayaz M. Belkozhayev, Minnatallah Al-Yozbaki, Alex George, Raigul Ye Niyazova , Kamalidin O. Sharipov , Lee J. Byrne and Cornelia M. Wilson*

Volume 20, Issue 8, 2022

Published on: 14 March, 2022

Page: [1450 - 1478] Pages: 29

DOI: 10.2174/1570159X19666210817150141

Price: $65

Abstract

There are different modalities of intercellular communication governed by cellular homeostasis. In this review, we will explore one of these forms of communication called extracellular vesicles (EVs). These vesicles are released by all cells in the body and are heterogeneous in nature. The primary function of EVs is to share information through their cargo consisting of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids (mRNA, miRNA, dsDNA etc.) with other cells, which have a direct consequence on their microenvironment. We will focus on the role of EVs of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the nervous system and how these participate in intercellular communication to maintain physiological function and provide neuroprotection. However, deregulation of this same communication system could play a role in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, prion disease and Huntington’s disease. The release of EVs from a cell provides crucial information to what is happening inside the cell and thus could be used in diagnostics and therapy. We will discuss and explore new avenues for the clinical applications of using engineered MSC-EVs and their potential therapeutic benefit in treating neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: Extracellular vesicles, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, prion disease, Huntington’s disease, miRNA, stem cells.

Graphical Abstract
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