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Drug Metabolism Letters


ISSN (Print): 1872-3128
ISSN (Online): 1874-0758

Review Article

Management of Acute Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning: Has Anything Changed?

Author(s): Lokhesh C. Anbalagan, Navneet Arora and Ashok K. Pannu*

Volume 14 , Issue 2 , 2021

Published on: 13 August, 2021

Page: [106 - 116] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1872312814666210813115625

Price: $65


Due to its easy availability, rapid and severe toxicity, and no specific antidote, aluminum phosphide has emerged as a lethal toxin, commonly used for suicidal intent in agricultural communities. Despite various advances in medicine, this compound’s toxicity is poorly understood, and it still has a very high case fatality rate with no definitive treatment options available. This review aims to understand the mechanism of toxicity, clinical toxidrome of acute aluminum phosphide poisoning, and the available therapeutic options, including recent advances. A literature review was performed searching PubMed, EMBASE Ovid, and Cochrane Library, using the following search items: (“aluminum phosphide poisoning” OR “aluminum phosphide poisoning toxicity” OR “aluminum phosphide ingestion”) AND (“management” OR “therapy” OR “treatment”). Selected articles were discussed amongst all the authors to shape this review. High case fatality rate and lack of any specific antidote are persisting challenges. Therapeutic measures need to be implemented from all fronts – reducing easy access to the poison, developing less toxic alternatives for use as a pesticide, and more studies directed at developing an effective reversal agent for phosphine. The advent of promising agents like glucose-insulin-potassium infusion and lipid emulsion is a new ray of hope in the complete recovery in this fatal poisoning. The need of the hour is to find an agent that rapidly and effectively reverses aluminum phosphide's toxic effects. Large multicenter controlled trials are required to establish the role of glucose-insulin-potassium and lipid emulsion.

Keywords: Aluminum phosphide, poisoning, toxicity, management, therapy, glucose-insulin-potassium, lipid emulsion.

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