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CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1871-5273
ISSN (Online): 1996-3181

Review Article

Melatonin and Sleep Disturbances in Alzheimer’s Disease

Author(s): A.H.M. Safayet Ullah Prodhan , Cinzia Cavestro, Mohammad Amjad Kamal and Mohammad Asiful Islam*

Volume 20 , Issue 8 , 2021

Published on: 04 August, 2021

Page: [736 - 754] Pages: 19

DOI: 10.2174/1871527320666210804155617

Price: $65

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by sleep, behavioral, memory, and cognitive deteriorations. Sleep disturbance (SD) is a major disease burden in AD, which has a reciprocal relationship with AD pathophysiology. It aggravates memory, behavioral, and cognitive complications in AD. Different studies have found that melatonin hormone levels reduce even in the pre-clinical stages of AD. Melatonin is the primary sleep-regulating hormone and a potent antioxidant with neuroprotective roles. The decrease in melatonin levels can thus promote SD and AD neuropathology. Exogenous melatonin has the potential to alleviate neuropathology and SD in AD by different mechanisms. Various studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of exogenous melatonin to treat SD in AD. Though most of the studies suggest that melatonin is useful to ameliorate SD in AD, the remaining studies show opposite results. The timing, dosage, and duration of melatonin administration along with disease condition, genetic, environmental, and some other factors can be responsible for the discrepancies between the studies. More extensive trials with longer durations and higher dosage forms and studies including bright light therapy and melatonin agonists (ramelteon, agomelatine, and tasimelteon) should be performed to determine the efficacy of melatonin to treat SD in AD.

Keywords: Melatonin, Alzheimer's disease, sleep disturbances, melatonin receptor agonists, amyloid beta, APP.

Graphical Abstract

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