Generic placeholder image

Current Drug Safety

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1574-8863
ISSN (Online): 2212-3911

Mini-Review Article

Assessment of COVID-19 Treatment Advised in Different Ethnic Populations

Author(s): B. Arjun, P.R. Krishnendu, Leena K. Pappachen and Subin M. Zachariah*

Volume 17, Issue 2, 2022

Published on: 13 January, 2022

Page: [90 - 99] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1574886316666210728111721

Price: $65

Abstract

A virus is an infectious agent that can only replicate within a host organism and can infect a variety of living organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals. Viruses are so small that a microscope is necessary to visualize them, and they have a very simple structure. A coronavirus is a group of viruses that can cause diseases, for instance, the basic cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). The patients affected with the COVID-19 infection will encounter respiratory sickness and can recuperate without requiring normal therapy. Individuals with clinical issues like cardiovascular problems, diabetes, and respiratory illness will suffer from the ailment. COVID-19 disease spreads through aerosols or the nose when an infected individual hacks or sneezes. In 2019, a new disease, known as novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was discovered in China, and on March 11, 2020, it was declared a pandemic disease by the World Health Organization (WHO), spreading rapidly across 194 countries in Europe, North America, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and Africa. The best way to stop the spread of the transmission is to be instructed about COVID-19 and how it spreads. In this survey, we are endeavoring to focus on the drugs and vaccines that are used for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19.

Keywords: Coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), common cold, COVID-19, malignant growth.

« Previous
Graphical Abstract
[1]
Woolhouse M, Scott F, Hudson Z, Howey R, Chase-Topping M. Human viruses: Discovery and emeraence. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 2012; 367(1604): 2864-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2011.0354] [PMID: 22966141]
[2]
Boopathi S, Poma AB, Kolandaivel P. Novel 2019 coronavirus structure, mechanism of action, antiviral drug promises and rule out against Its treatment. J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021; 39(9): 3409-18.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1758788] [PMID: 32306836]
[3]
Maier HJ, Bickerton E, Britton P. Coronaviruses: Methods and protocols. Coronaviruses Methods Protoc 2015; 1282(1): 1-282.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7] [PMID: 25870870]
[4]
Seyed Hosseini E, Riahi Kashani N, Nikzad H, Azadbakht J, Hassani Bafrani H, Haddad Kashani H. The novel coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): Mechanism of action, detection and recent therapeutic strategies. Virology 2020; 551: 1-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2020.08.011] [PMID: 33010669]
[5]
Belouzard S, Millet JK, Licitra BN, Whittaker GR. Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by the viral spike protein. Viruses 2012; 4(6): 1011-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v4061011] [PMID: 22816037]
[6]
Gupta A, Kumar S, Kumar R, et al. COVID-19: Emergence of infectious diseases, nanotechnology aspects, challenges, and future perspectives. ChemistrySelect 2020; 5(25): 7521-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/slct.202001709] [PMID: 32835089]
[7]
Grein J, Ohmagari N, Shin D, et al. Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients with Severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(24): 2327-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2007016] [PMID: 32275812]
[8]
Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Homoud AH, Memish ZA. Remdesivir as a possible therapeutic option for the COVID-19. Travel Med Infect Dis 2020; 34(February): 101615.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101615] [PMID: 32145386]
[9]
COVID-19 treatment update: Here is a list of all drugs used in India; their pros and cons. Available from:https://www.cnbctv18.com/healthcare/covid-19-treatment-update-here-is-a-list-of-all-drugs-used-in-india-their-pros-and-cons-6322301.html Accessed August 13.
[10]
Shah S, Das S, Jain A, Misra DP, Negi VS. A systematic review of the prophylactic role of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Int J Rheum Dis 2020; 23(5): 613-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1756-185X.13842] [PMID: 32281213]
[11]
Costanzo M, De Giglio MAR, Roviello GN. SARS-CoV-2: Recent reports on antiviral therapies based on lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/umifenovir, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir and other drugs for the treatment of the new coronavirus. Curr Med Chem 2020; 27(27): 4536-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867327666200416131117] [PMID: 32297571]
[12]
Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, et al. A trial of lopinavir-ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(19): 1787-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001282] [PMID: 32187464]
[13]
Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Leist SR, et al. Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon beta against MERS-CoV. Nat Commun 2020; 11(1): 222.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13940-6] [PMID: 31924756]
[14]
COVID-19. Prevention & investigational treatments. Available from:https://www.drugs.com/condition/covid-19.html Accessed August 13.
[15]
Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Investigational Drugs and Other Therapies. 2019. Avaialble from:https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2500116-overview#a Accessed August 13.
[16]
COVID-19 treatment: What are monoclonal antibodies and how do they work against novel coronavirus. Available from:https://www.timesnownews.com/health/article/covid-19-treatment-what-are-monoclonal-antibodies-and-how-do-they-work-against-novel-coronavirus/634406 Accessed August 13.
[17]
Gupta D, Sahoo AK, Singh A. Ivermectin: potential candidate for the treatment of Covid 19. Braz J Infect Dis 2020; 24(4): 369-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2020.06.002] [PMID: 32615072]
[18]
Bray M, Rayner C, Noël F, Jans D, Wagstaff K. Ivermectin and COVID-19: A report in Antiviral Research, widespread interest, an FDA warning, two letters to the editor and the authors’ responses. Antiviral Res 2020; 178(April): 104805.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104805] [PMID: 32330482]
[19]
Kelleni MT. Nitazoxanide/azithromycin combination for COVID-19: A suggested new protocol for early management. Pharmacol Res 2020; 157(April): 104874.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104874] [PMID: 32360581]
[20]
Baden LR, Rubin EJ. COVID-19- The search for effective therapy. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(19): 1851-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe2005477] [PMID: 32187463]
[21]
Wang L, Shi W, Chappell JD, et al. Importance of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies targeting multiple antigenic sites on the middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike glycoprotein to avoid neutralization escape. J Virol 2018; 92(10): 2019-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02002-17] [PMID: 29514901]
[22]
Designer antibodies could battle COVID-19 before vaccine arrive. Available from:https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/08/designer-antibodies-could-battle-covid-19-vaccines-arrive Accessed August 13.
[23]
COVID-19 Update: Monoclonal Antibodies,Pooled Hospital Testing. Available from:https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/935173#vp_2 Accessed August 13.
[24]
New monoclonal antibodies show promise in fight against COVID-19. Available from:https://www.hospimedica.com/covid-19/articles/294783565/new-monoclonal-antibodies-show-promise-in-fight-against-covid-19.html Accessed August 13.
[25]
Folegatti P M, Ewer K J, Aley P K, et al. Covid vaccine trial. 1-13.
[26]
Russia 1st nation to finish human trials for Covid-19 vaccine. Available from:https://health.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/industry/russia-1st-nation-to-finish-human-trials-for- covid-19-vaccine/76938659 Accessed August 13.
[27]
[28]
Sputnik V. What we know about Russia’s coronavirus vaccine. Available from:https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/08/sputnik-russia-coronavirus-vaccine-200813070859021.html Accessed August 13.
[29]
Russian Covid-19 vaccine| Sputnik is safe and effective, says RDIF CEO. Available from:https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/russian-covid-19-vaccine-sputnik-v-is-safe-and-effective-says-rdif-ceo/article32400451.ece Accessed August 13.
[30]
Beigel JH, Tomashek KM, Dodd LE, et al. Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 - Final Report. N Engl J Med 2020; 383(19): 1813-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2007764] [PMID: 32445440]
[31]
Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine: Current evidence for their effectiveness in treating Covid-19. Available from:https://www.cebm.net/covid-19/chloroquine-and-hydroxychloroquine-current-evidence-for-their-effectiveness-in-treating-covid-19/ Accessed November 30.
[32]
Horby PW, Mafham M, Bell JL, et al. Lopinavir-ritonavir in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial. Lancet 2020; 396(10259): 1345-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32013-4] [PMID: 33031764]
[33]
Pandey S, Pathak SK, Pandey A, et al. Ivermectin in COVID-19: What do we know? Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020; 14(6): 1921-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.09.027] [PMID: 33032231]
[34]
Huang D, Yu H, Wang T, Yang H, Yao R, Liang Z. Efficacy and safety of umifenovir for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Virol 2020; 2019(37): 0-1.
[35]
What is the role of nitazoxanide in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019). 2019. Available from:https://www.medscape.com/answers/2500114-197646/what-is-the-role-of-nitazoxanide-in-the-treatment-of-coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-2019 Accessed November 30.
[36]
COVAXIN-India’s First Indigenous COVID-19 Vaccine. Available from:https://www.bharatbiotech.com/covaxin.html Accessed April 29.
[38]
Nair K S, Kamath S, Rajan A, Thomas S, Aswin D, Zachariah S M. Detailed view on repurposed drugs, tracking of vaccines,and brief view on prophylactic nanomedicines as an alternative approach and patient care for Covid-19. Int J Appl Pharm 2021; 13(1): 19-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2021v13i1.39705]
[39]
Adithya J, Nair B, Aishwarya S, Nath LR. The plausible eole of Indian traditional medicine in combating corona virus (SARS-CoV 2): A Mini-Review. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2021; 22(7): 906-19.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201021666200807111359] [PMID: 32767920]
[40]
Kumar R, Harilal S, Al-Sehemi AG, Mathew GE, Carradori S, Mathew B. The Chronicle of COVID-19: Possible strategies to curb the pandemic. Curr Med Chem 2021; 28(15): 2852-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867327666200702151018] [PMID: 32614740]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2023 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy