Background: Larrea tridentata is a dominant shrub in the deserts of North America and is recognized for its various traditional uses. More than 50 traditional uses have been recorded. Regarding its chemical composition, the products of the mevalonate, shikimate, and malonate pathways are predominant. L. tridentata has nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), one of its most studied secondary metabolites that exhibited remarkable different biological activities: sequestration of reactive oxygen species, inhibition of lipoxygenases (LOX) and activation of the endogenous antioxidant response mediated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2).
Objective and Methods: This review seeks to draw attention to metabolites other than NDGA and which also contribute to the various biological activities of L. tridentata. Therefore, the present review includes those reports focused on the pharmacological properties of the organic extracts of L. tridentata and its natural products with promising values.
Results and Conclusion: Among the most promising and widely reported metabolites from L. tridentata, are: 3’-demethoxy-6-O-demethylisoguaiacin, 3’-O-methyldihydroguaiaretic acid, meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid, and tetra-O-methylnordihydroguaiaretic acid. These have been reported to exhibit antibacterial, antiprotozoal, anthelmintic, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, and antioxidant activities.