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Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy


ISSN (Print): 1574-888X
ISSN (Online): 2212-3946

Review Article

The World Against Versatile SARS-Cov-2 Nanomachines: Mythological or Reality?

Author(s): Shima Tavakol, Hani Tavakol, Mo S. Alavijeh and Alexander Seifalian*

Volume 17, Issue 1, 2022

Published on: 12 July, 2021

Page: [43 - 57] Pages: 15

DOI: 10.2174/1574888X16666210712213102


Nanomachines hold promise for the next generation of emerging technology; however, nanomachines are not a new concept. Viruses, nature’s nanomachines, have already existed for thousands of years. In 2019, the whole world had to come together to confront a life-threatening nanomachine named “SARS-CoV-2”, which causes COVID-19 illness. SARS-CoV-2, a smart nanomachine, attaches itself to the ACE2 and CD147 receptors present on the cell surfaces of the lungs, kidneys, heart, brain, intestines, testes, etc. and triggers pathogenesis. Cell entry triggers a cascade of inflammatory responses resulting in tissue damage, with the worst affected cases leading to death. SARS-CoV-2 influences several receptors and signalling pathways; therefore, finding a biomaterial that caps these signalling pathways and ligand sites is of interest. This research aimed to compare the similarities and differences between COVID-19 and its elderly sisters, MERS and SARS. Furthermore, we glanced at emerging therapeutics that carry potential in eliminating SARS-CoV-2, and the tissue damage it causes. Simple prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for the treatment of COVID- 19 infection have been put forward.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, signalling pathways, nanomachine, vaccine, drug repurposing, nanotechnology, nanomaterials.

Graphical Abstract
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