Generic placeholder image

Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1871-5206
ISSN (Online): 1875-5992

Research Article

Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used for Management of Cancer in Karonga District, Northern Malawi

Author(s): Bonface Mwamatope, David Tembo*, Ibrahim Chikowe, Cecilia Maliwichi-Nyirenda, Elizabeth Kampira and Friday Foster Masumbu

Volume 22, Issue 8, 2022

Published on: 12 January, 2022

Page: [1622 - 1631] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1871520621666210708122037

Price: $65


Background: In Malawi, cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. This has led to increased use of herbal medicines for cancer management.

Objective: This study aimed at identifying medicinal plants that are used for the management of cancer in the southern area of Karonga district, Northern Malawi.

Methods: Semi-structured individual questionnaire interviews were used to collect ethnobotanical data from traditional herbal practitioners in the study area.

Results: A total of twenty six (26) plant species from seventeen (17) botanical families were reported by Traditional Herbal Practitioners to be effective in the management of cancer. The botanical families with representation of more than one plant species were Fabaceae with five species, followed by Combretaceae and the Anacardiaceae with three species each, and Meliaceaewith with two species. The relative frequency of citation (RFC) showed that Senna singueana (RFC = 0.833), Lannea discolour (RFC = 0.833), Melia azedarach (RFC = 0.667), and Moringa oleifera (RFC = 0.667) were the medicinal plant species which were frequently mentioned and used in the study. The recipes could be a mixture of plant species or plant parts such as the leaves, barks, roots, rhizomes, seeds, flowers, and fruits.

Conclusion: The study showed that a potential cancer management drug could be developed from the medicinal plant species found in the area. The results of this study could provide baseline information on medicinal plant species for further phytochemical studies and other studies to validate their use.

Keywords: Cancer management, ethnobotanical survey, Karonga district, medicinal plants, traditional herbal practitioners, herbal medicine.

« Previous
Graphical Abstract
World Health Organization. WHO traditional medicine strategy: 2014-2023; World Health Organization: Geneva, 2013.
Lambert, J.; Omindi-ogaja, E.; Gatheru, G.; Mirangi, T.; Owara, J.; Herbst, C.H. The contribution of traditional herbal medicine practitioners to kenyan health care.Delivery results from community health-seeking behavior vignettes and a traditional herbal medicine practitioner survey, health, nutrition and population (HNP) discussion paper; The international bank for reconstruction and development/the world bank: 1818 H Street; NW Washington : DC 20433, 2011.
African health observatory: Malawi country profile. Geneva: World health organization 2005. Available from: Accessed March 17, 2020.
Maliwichi-Nyirenda, C.P.; Maliwichi, L.L. Medicinal plants used to induce labour and traditional techniques used in determination of onset of labour in pregnant women in Malawi: A case study of Mulanje District. J. Med. Plants Res., 2010, 4(24), 2609-2614.
Chisala, S.E. Protecting traditional healing practices in Malawi. Are there practices to be learnt in South Africa?, 2005. Availablefrom: Accessed December 14, 2019.
Nguyen, C.; Mehaidli, A.; Baskaran, K.; Grewal, S.; Pupulin, A.; Ruvinov, I.; Scaria, B.; Parashar, K.; Vegh, C.; Pandey, S. Dandelion root and lemongrass extracts induce apoptosis, enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy, and reduce tumour xenograft growth in vivo in prostate cancer; Evid.-Based Complementary Altern. Med, 2019.
Singh, A.; Settleman, J. EMT, cancer stem cells and drug resistance: an emerging axis of evil in the war on cancer. Oncogene, 2010, 29(34), 4741-4751.
[] [PMID: 20531305]
Luqmani, Y.A. Mechanisms of drug resistance in cancer chemotherapy. Med. Princ. Pract., 2005, 14(1)(Suppl. 1), 35-48.
[] [PMID: 16103712]
Chisaka, J.W. 2019. The use of traditional herbal medicines among palliative care patients at Mulanje Mission Hospital, Malawi. Masters Thesis. University of Cape Town: Cape Town, January. 2019.
Msyamboza, K.P.; Dzamalala, C.; Mdokwe, C.; Kamiza, S.; Lemerani, M.; Dzowela, T.; Kathyola, D. Burden of cancer in Malawi; common types, incidence and trends: national population-based cancer registry. BMC Res. Notes, 2012, 5(1), 149.
[] [PMID: 22424105]
Chikuni, A.C.; Maliwichi, C.P.; Mwanyambo, M.L. National herbarium & botanic gardens of Malawi. An overview of traditional medicine and medicinal plant research in Malawi: achievements and priorities. 2013. Available from: Accessed December 15, 2019.
Msonthi, J.D. Research into medicinal plants of Malawi. Proceedings of the XIII plenary meeting of AETFAT.National Herbarium and Botanic Gardens of Malawi,Zomba, Malawi, 1994, 1, pp. 223-231.
Kumar, S.; Pandey, A.K. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview. Sci. World. J., 2013, 2013162750
[] [PMID: 24470791]
Yang, L.; Stöckigt, J. Trends for diverse production strategies of plant medicinal alkaloids. Nat. Prod. Rep., 2010, 27(10), 1469-1479.
[] [PMID: 20730220]
Mithöfer, A.; Boland, W. Plant defense against herbivores: chemical aspects. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 2012, 63, 431-450.
[] [PMID: 22404468]
Zhang, Q.; Bian, H.; Guo, L.; Zhu, H. Pharmacologic preconditioning with berberine attenuating ischemia-induced apoptosis and promoting autophagy in neuron. Am. J. Transl. Res., 2016, 8(2), 1197-1207.
[PMID: 27158406]
Huang, W.Y.; Cai, Y.Z.; Zhang, Y. Natural phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants: potential use for cancer prevention. Nutr. Cancer, 2010, 62(1), 1-20.
[] [PMID: 20043255]
Lopes, M.H.; Paul, I.M. Triterpen´oides pentac´ıclicos de Euclea natalensis e Euclea divinorum. Revista Portuguesa deQu´ımica., 1973, 15, 213-217.
Chen, C.; Yu, Z.; Li, Y.; Fichna, J.; Storr, M. Effects of berberine in the gastrointestinal tract - A review of actions and therapeutic implications. Am. J. Chin. Med., 2014, 42(5), 1053-1070.
[] [PMID: 25183302]
Godugu, C.; Patel, A.R.; Doddapaneni, R.; Somagoni, J.; Singh, M. Approaches to improve the oral bioavailability and effects of novel anticancer drugs berberine and betulinic acid. PLoS One, 2014, 9(3)e89919
[] [PMID: 24614362]
Pang, B.; Zhao, L.H.; Zhou, Q.; Zhao, T.Y.; Wang, H.; Gu, C.J.; Tong, X.L. Application of berberine on treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int. J. Endocrinol., 2015.
Kaur, R.; Arora, S. Alkaloids- important therapeutic secondary metabolites of plant origin. J Crit Rev., 2015, 2(3), 1-8.
Kisangau, D.P.; Lyaruu, H.V.; Hosea, K.M.; Joseph, C.C. Use of traditional medicines in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Tanzania: a case in the Bukoba rural district. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2007, 3(1), 29.
[] [PMID: 17623081]
Newman, D.J.; Cragg, G.M. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the 30 years from 1981 to 2010. J. Nat. Prod., 2012, 75(3), 311-335.
[] [PMID: 22316239]
Agyare, C.; Spiegler, V.; Sarkodie, H.; Asase, A.; Liebau, E.; Hensel, A. An ethnopharmacological survey and in vitro confirmation of the ethnopharmacological use of medicinal plants as anthelmintic remedies in the Ashanti region, in the central part of Ghana. J. Ethnopharmacol, 2014, , 158(Pt A), 255-263.
[] [PMID: 25446638]
Kuruppu, A.I.; Paranagama, P.; Goonasekara, C.L. Medicinal plants commonly used against cancer in traditional medicine formulae in Sri Lanka. Saudi Pharm. J., 2019, 27(4), 565-573.
[] [PMID: 31061626]
Matata, D.Z.; Ngassapa, O.D.; Machumi, F.; Moshi, M.J. Screening of plants used as traditional anticancer remedies in mkuranga and same districts, Tanzania, using brine shrimp toxicity bioassay. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., 2018, 20183034612
[] [PMID: 30538758]
Ochwang’i, D.O.; Kimwele, C.N.; Oduma, J.A.; Gathumbi, P.K.; Mbaria, J.M.; Kiama, S.G. Medicinal plants used in treatment and management of cancer in Kakamega County, Kenya. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2014, 151(3), 1040-1055.
[] [PMID: 24362078]
Parveen; Upadhyay, B.; Roy, S.; Kumar, A. Traditional uses of medicinal plants among the rural communities of Churu district in the Thar Desert, India. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2007, 113(3), 387-399.
[] [PMID: 17714898]
Ashwell, D.; Walston, N. An overview of the use and trade of plants and animals in traditional medicine systems in Cambodia; Traffic Southeast Asia, Greater Mekong Programme: Hanoi, Vietnam, 2008, p. 112.
de Boer, H.J.; Cotingting, C. Medicinal plants for women’s healthcare in southeast Asia: a meta-analysis of their traditional use, chemical constituents, and pharmacology. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2014, 151(2), 747-767.
[] [PMID: 24269772]
Yu, F.; Takahashi, T.; Moriya, J.; Kawaura, K.; Yamakawa, J.; Kusaka, K.; Itoh, T.; Morimoto, S.; Yamaguchi, N.; Kanda, T. Traditional Chinese medicine and Kampo: a review from the distant past for the future. J. Int. Med. Res., 2006, 34(3), 231-239.
[] [PMID: 16866016]
Cussy-Poma, V.; Fernández, E.; Rondevaldova, J.; Foffová, H.; Russo, D. Ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants used in the Qampaya District, Bolivia. Bol. Latinoam. Caribe Plantas Med. Aromat., 2017, 16, 68-77.
Leonti, M.; Ramirez, R.F.; Sticher, O.; Heinrich, M. Medicinal flora of the Popoluca, Mexico: A botanical systematical perspective. Econ. Bot., 200357, 218-230.
Giovannini, P.; Howes, M.R.; Edwards, S.E. Data on medicinal plants used in Central America to manage diabetes and its sequelae (skin conditions, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, urinary problems and vision loss). Data Brief, 2016, 7(1), 1217-1220.
[] [PMID: 27761504]
González, J.A.; García-Barriuso, M.; Amich, F. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants traditionally used in the Arribes del Duero, western Spain. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2010, 131(2), 343-355.
[] [PMID: 20643201]
Vitalini, S.; Tomè, F.; Fico, G. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in Valvestino (Italy). J. Ethnopharmacol., 2009, 121(1), 106-116.
[] [PMID: 18996175]
Pieroni, A.; Houlihan, L.; Ansari, N.; Hussain, B.; Aslam, S. Medicinal perceptions of vegetables traditionally consumed by South-Asian migrants living in Bradford, Northern England. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2007, 113(1), 100-110.
[] [PMID: 17583457]
Mwafongo, E.; Nordal, I.; Magombo, Z.; Stedje, B. Ethnobotanical study of Hyacinthaceae and non-hyacinthaceous geophytes in selected districts of Malawi. Ethnobot. Res. Appl., 2010, 8, 75-93.
Bundschuh, T.V.; Hahn, K.; Wittig, R. The medicinal plants of the woodlands in northern Malawi (Karonga district). Flora et Vegetatio Sudano-Sambesica., 2011, 14, 3-8.
Bundschuh, T.V.; Wittig, R; Hahn, K. The Dry Miombo Woodland in Northern Malawi.Flora et Vegetatio Su- dano-Sambesica., 2010, 13, 22-34.
Burkill, H.M. The useful plants of west tropical Africa; Royal Botanic Gardens: Kew, 2004, Vol. VI, .
Malawi, N.S.O. Malawi Population and Housing Census Main Report., Gov, 2018.
Vincent, K.; Dougill, A.J.; Mkwambisi, D.D.; Cull, T.; Stringer, L.C.; Chanika, D. Analysis of Existing Weather and Climate Information for Malawi; Univ Leeds, 2014, pp. 1-8.
Tardío, J.; Pardo-de-Santayana, M. Cultural importance indices: A comparative analysis based on the useful wild plants of Southern Cantabria (Northern Spain) 1. Econ. Bot., 2008, 62, 24-39.
Hargreaves, B.J. Killing and curing. Soc. Malawi J., 1978, 31(2), 21-30.
Van Wyk, B.E.; De Wet, H.; van Heerden, F.R. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in the southeastern Karoo, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Bot., 2008, 74(4), 696-704.
Grace, O.M.; Simmonds, M.S.; Smith, G.F.; van Wyk, A.E. Therapeutic uses of Aloe. (Asphodelaceae) in southern Africa. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2008, 119(3), 604-614.
[] [PMID: 18682283]
Gebrelibanos, M. In vitro erythrocyte haemolysis inhibition Properties of Senna singueana Extracts. Momona Ethiop. J. Sci., 2012, 4(2), 16-28.
Chikowe, I.; Mnyenyembe, M.; Jere, S.; Mtewa, A.G.; Mponda, J.; Lampiao, F. An ethnomedicinal survey of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants in the traditional authority chikowi in zomba, malawi. Curr. Tradit. Med., 2020, 6(3), 225-241.
Al-Asmari, A.K.; Albalawi, S.M.; Athar, M.T.; Khan, A.Q.; Al-Shahrani, H.; Islam, M. Moringa oleifera as an anti-cancer agent against breast and colorectal cancer cell lines. PLoS One, 2015, 10(8)e0135814
[] [PMID: 26288313]
Jain, R.; Jain, S.K. Traditional medicinal plants as anticancer agents from Chhattishgarh, India: An overview. Int. J. Phytomed., 2010, 2(3), 186-196.
Mbiantcha, M.; Almas, J.; Dawe, A.; Faheem, A.; Sidra, Z. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of Combretin A and Combretin B isolated from Combretum fragrans F. HOFFM (Combretaceae) leaves. Inflammopharmacology, 2018, 26(6), 1429-1440.
[] [PMID: 29159717]
Chakuma, N.; Chipurura, B.; Muchuweti, M.; Chitindingu, K.; Bhebhe, M.; Chagonda, L. Total phenolic content, free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl bark and root extracts. J. Biol. Act. Prod. Nat., 2015, 5, 71-77.
Kola, P.; Metowogo, K.; Kantati, Y.T.; Lawson-Evi, P.; Kpemissi, M.; El-Hallouty, S.M.; Mouzou, A.P.; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K.; Aklikokou, K.A. Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants used by traditional healers in central and kara regions of togo for antitumor and chronic wound healing effects. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., 2020. [A head of print]
Cock, I.E.; Van Vuuren, S.F. A comparison of the antimicrobial activity and toxicity of six combretum and two terminalia species from southern Africa. Pharmacogn. Mag., 2015, 11(41), 208-218.
[] [PMID: 25709234]
Plant resources of tropical AfricaSchmelzer, G.H.; Gurib Fakim, A., Eds.; Medicinal Plants; PROTA Foundation: Backhuys Publishers: Leiden, 2008.
Mahapatra, S.; Karnes, R.J.; Holmes, M.W.; Young, C.Y.; Cheville, J.C.; Kohli, M.; Klee, E.W.; Tindall, D.J.; Donkena, K.V. Novel molecular targets of Azadirachta indica associated with inhibition of tumor growth in prostate cancer. AAPS J., 2011, 13(3), 365-377.
[] [PMID: 21560017]
Elumalai, P.; Gunadharini, D.N.; Senthilkumar, K.; Banudevi, S.; Arunkumar, R.; Benson, C.S.; Sharmila, G.; Arunakaran, J. Induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by nimbolide through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. Toxicol. Lett., 2012, 215(2), 131-142.
[] [PMID: 23089555]
Rajasekaran, S.; Dinesh, M.G.; Kansrajh, C.; Baig, F.H. Amaranthus spinosus leaf extracts and its anti-inflamatory effects on cancer. Indian J. Res. Pharm. Biotech., 2014, 2(1), 1058.
Aggarwal, B.B.; Prasad, S.; Reuter, S.; Kannappan, R.; Yadev, V.R.; Park, B.; Kim, J.H.; Gupta, S.C.; Phromnoi, K.; Sundaram, C.; Prasad, S.; Chaturvedi, M.M.; Sung, B. Identification of novel anti-inflammatory agents from Ayurvedic medicine for prevention of chronic diseases: “reverse pharmacology” and “bedside to bench” approach. Curr. Drug Targets, 2011, 12(11), 1595-1653.
[] [PMID: 21561421]
Higgins, C.A.; Bell, T.; Delbederi, Z.; Feutren-Burton, S.; McClean, B.; O’Dowd, C.; Watters, W.; Armstrong, P.; Waugh, D.; van den Berg, H. Growth inhibitory activity of extracted material and isolated compounds from the fruits of Kigelia pinnata. Planta Med., 2010, 76(16), 1840-1846.
[] [PMID: 20560113]
Sourabie, T.S.; Kinda, D.; Yaro, B.; Nikiema, J.B. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by the traditional medical healers in the villages of Beregadougou and Fabedougou (Cascades Region, Burkina Faso). IOSR. J. Pharm. (Cairo), 2013, 3, 38-45.
Shirisha, R.; Varalakshmi, K.N. Tamarindus indica bark extract and its bioactive fraction induce apoptosis in HeLa and PA-1 cells. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 2017, 78(6), 725-731.
Tugume, P.; Kakudidi, E.K.; Buyinza, M.; Namaalwa, J.; Kamatenesi, M.; Mucunguzi, P.; Kalema, J. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plant species used by communities around Mabira Central Forest Reserve, Uganda. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2016, 12(1), 5.
[] [PMID: 26762159]
Fyhrquist, P.; Mwasumbi, L.; Haeggström, C.A.; Vuorela, H.; Hiltunen, R.; Vuorela, P. Ethnobotanical and antimicrobial investigation on some species of Terminalia and Combretum (Combretaceae) growing in Tanzania. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2002, 79(2), 169-177.
[] [PMID: 11801378]
Abou-Elella, F.; Mourad, R. Anticancer and anti-oxidant potentials of ethanolic extracts of Phoenix dactylifera, Musa acuminata and Cucurbita maxima. Res. J. Pharm. Biol. Chem. Sci., 2015, 6(1), 710-720.
Esubalew, S.T.; Belete, A.; Lulekal, E.; Gabriel, T.; Engidawork, E.; Asres, K. Review of Ethnobotanical and Ethnopharmacological Evidences of some Ethiopian Medicinal Plants traditionally used for the Treatment of Cancer. Ethiop. J. Health Dev., 2017, 31(3), 161-187.
Daily monitor, natural remedies and cancer: What’s the truth? 2019. Available from: Accessed October 05, 2020.
Wamai, M. Minds illuminated as mak hosts the day of moringa science. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Available from:,2019 Accessed September 16, 2020.
Reimers, E.A.L.; Fernández, E.C.; Reimers, D.J.L.; Chaloupkova, P.; Del Valle, J.M.Z.; Milella, L.; Russo, D. An Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in Papantla, Veracruz, Mexico. Plants (Basel), 2019, 8(8), 246.
[] [PMID: 31344952]
Omara, T.; Kiprop, A.K.; Ramkat, R.C.; Cherutoi, J.; Kagoya, S.; Nyangena, M.D.; Azeze, T.T.; Nteziyaremye, P.; Nyambura, K.L.; Jepchirchir, A.; Maiyo, A. Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Management of Cancer in Uganda: A review of ethnobotanical surveys, phytochemistry, and anticancer studies; Evidence-Based Complement. Alternat. Med, 2020. [A head of print]
Philip, K.; Elizabeth, M.M.; Cheplogoi, P.K.; Samuel, K.T. Ethnobotanical survey ofantimalarial medicinal plants used in Butebo country. Eastern Uganda. Eur. J. Med. Plants., 2017, 21(4), 1-22.
Misonge, O.J.; Kamindu, G.N.; Sabina, W. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used for the treatment and management of cancer in Embu County, Kenya. Faslnamah-i Giyahan-i Daruyi, 2019, 7(4), 39-46.
Avana-Tientcheu, M.L.; Sime, C.H.; Tsobou, R.; Tchoundjeu, Z. Diversity, ethnobotanical potential and sustainability assessment of plants used by traditional healers to treat cancer in Boyo division, North-West region, Cameroon. European J. Med. Plants, 2019, 27, 1-22.
Agyare, C.; Asase, A.; Lechtenberg, M.; Niehues, M.; Deters, A.; Hensel, A. An ethnopharmacological survey and in vitro confirmation of ethnopharmacological use of medicinal plants used for wound healing in Bosomtwi-Atwima-Kwanwoma area. Ghana. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2009, 125(3), 393-403.
[] [PMID: 19635544]
Koudouvo, K.; Karou, D.S.; Kokou, K.; Essien, K.; Aklikokou, K.; Glitho, I.A.; Simpore, J.; Sanogo, R.; De Souza, C.; Gbeassor, M. An ethnobotanical study of antimalarial plants in Togo Maritime Region. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2011, 134(1), 183-190.
[] [PMID: 21167269]
Agyare, C.; Spiegler, V.; Asase, A.; Scholz, M.; Hempel, G.; Hensel, A. An ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants traditionally used for cancer treatment in the Ashanti region. Ghana. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2018, 212, 137-152.
[] [PMID: 29066406]
Ayele, T.T. A review on traditionally used medicinal plants/herbs for cancer therapy in Ethiopia: current status, challenge and future perspectives. Org. Chem. Curr. Res., 2018, 7(2), 8.
Abu-Darwish, M.S.; Efferth, T. Medicinal plants from near east for cancer therapy. Front. Pharmacol., 2018, 9, 56.
[] [PMID: 29445343]
Alves-Silva, J.M.; Romane, A.; Efferth, T.; Salgueiro, L. North African medicinal plants traditionally used in cancer therapy. Front. Pharmacol., 2017, 8, 383.
[] [PMID: 28694778]
Asma, A.; Summiya, F.; Wajid, M. Impact of different environmental temperature on chemical composition of asparagusdensiflorus sprengeri L. collected from different areas of punjab, pakistan. J. Biochem. Microb. Toxicol., 2018, 1, 103.
Soni, U.; Brar, S.; Gauttam, V.K. Effect of seasonal variation on secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 2015, 6(9), 3654-3662.
Gololo, S.S.; Shai, L.J.; Agyei, N.M.; Mogale, M.A. Effect of seasonal changes on the quantity of phytochemicals in the leaves of three medicinal plants from Limpopo province, South Africa. J. Pharmacogn. Phytotherapy., 2016, 8(9), 168-172.
Singh, A. A note on variation of active principles in Indian medicinal plants and TIM formulations. Ethnobot. Leafl., 2008, 2008(1), 80.
Sartor, T.; Xavier, V.B.; Falcao, M.A.; Mondin, C.A.; Dos Santos, M.A. Seasonal changes in phenolic compounds and in the biological activities of Baccharis dentata (Vell.). G.M. Barroso. Ind. Crop Prod., 2013, 51, 355-359.
Shawa, I.T.; Msefula, C.; Mponda, J.; Maliwichi-Nyirenda, C.; Gondwe, M. Antibacterial effects of aqueous extracts of musa paradisiaca, ziziphus mucronata and senna singueana plants of Malawi. Int. J. Health Sci. Res., 2016, 6(2), 200-207.
Mwamatope, B.; Tembo, D.; Chikowe, I.; Kampira, E.; Nyirenda, C. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of Senna singueana, Melia azedarach, Moringa oleifera and Lannea discolor herbal plants. Sci. Am., 2020, 9e00481
Ahmed, M.F.; Rao, A.S.; Ahemad, S.R.; Ibrahim, M. Phytochemical Studies and Hepatoprotective activity of Melia azedarach Linn, against CCl. J. Pharm. Res., 2012, 5(5), 2664-2667.
Anwar, F.; Latif, S.; Ashraf, M.; Gilani, A.H. Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytother. Res., 2007, 21(1), 17-25.
[] [PMID: 17089328]
Kasolo, J.N.; Bimenya, G.S.; Ojok, L.; Ochieng, J.; Ogwal-Okeng, J.W. Phytochemicals and uses of Moringa oleifera leaves in Ugandan rural communities. J. Med. Plants Res., 2010, 4(9)
Segun, P.A.; Ogbole, O.O.; Ajaiyeoba, E.O. Medicinal plants used in the management of cancer among the Ijebus of Southwestern Nigeria. J. Herb. Med., 2018, 14, 68-75.
Aggarwal, B.B.; Shishodia, S.; Sandur, S.K.; Pandey, M.K.; Sethi, G. Inflammation and cancer: how hot is the link? Biochem. Pharmacol., 2006, 72(11), 1605-1621.
[] [PMID: 16889756]
Gordon, C.N. People and protected areas: Natural resource harvesting as an approach to support rural communities surrounding Majete Wildlife Reserve, Southern Malawi. Masters thesis. Stellenbosch University, South Africa. 2017.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy