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Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1574-888X
ISSN (Online): 2212-3946

Review Article

Development and Clinical Application of Tumor-derived Exosomes in Patients with Cancer

Author(s): Javad Verdi, Neda Ketabchi, Negar Noorbakhsh, Mahshid Saleh, Somayeh Ebrahimi‐Barough, Iman Seyhoun and Maria Kavianpour*

Volume 17, Issue 1, 2022

Published on: 22 June, 2021

Page: [91 - 102] Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/1574888X16666210622123942

Price: $65

Abstract

A tumor is an abnormal growth of cells within a tissue that can lead to death due to late diagnosis, poor prognosis, drug resistance, and finally enhanced metastasis formation. Exosomes are nanovesicles that have been derived from all the different cell types. These vesicles can transfer various molecules, including the distinct form of nucleic acids (mRNA, miRNA, and circRNA) and proteins. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) have exceptionally important roles through multiple molecular and cellular pathways like progression, tumorigenesis, drug resistance, and as well as metastasis. TEXs are detectable in all body fluids such as serum and urine, a convenient and non-invasive way to access these nano-sized vesicles. TEXs lead to the symptom expression of genetic aberrations in the tumor cell population, making them an accurate and sensitive biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of tumors. On the other hand, TEXs contain major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) and play important dual roles in regulating tumor immune responses: they can mediate both immune activation and suppression through tumor-associated immunity. Despite numerous scientific studies, there are still many technical barriers to distinguish TEXs from non-tumor-derived exosomes. Even so, removing exosomes leading to a wide difference in outcomes inside a patient's body. Hence, controversial pieces of evidence have demonstrated the vital role of TEXs as hopeful biomarkers for the early detection of cancers, evaluation of therapeutic effects, and monitoring of the patient.

Keywords: Tumor-derived exosomes, diagnosis, prognosis, therapeutic targets, cancer vaccine, serum.

Graphical Abstract
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