Background: Pyrogallol is present naturally in numerous plants. It is also an important functional group in many polyphenol compounds.
Objectives: The antibacterial activity, efficacy, and mechanism of pyrogallol towards MRSA strains were evaluated.
Methods: Microbroth dilution method was used to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC). Time-kill kinetic assay was adopted to determine the killing pattern of pyrogallol towards MRSA. The antibacterial mechanism was determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and crystal violet assay.
Results: Pyrogallol exhibited strong antibacterial activity against MRSA with MIC and MBC 15.6 μg/mL. Pyrogallol could inhibit the exponential growth of MRSA and kill the bacterial cells at higher concentrations. Pyrogallol was found targeting the cell membrane fatty acids, proteins/peptides, polysaccharides/carbohydrates and peptidoglycan of cell walls in the antibacterial mechanism. This has been confirmed through SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy and crystal violet assay.
Conclusion: Overall, the findings suggest that pyrogallol has the potential to be used as antibiotics which are used to treat multidrug-resistant bacteria.
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