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Current Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X

General Review Article

Triazolopyrimidine Nuclei: Privileged Scaffolds for Developing Antiviral Agents with a Proper Pharmacokinetic Profile

Author(s): Tommaso Felicetti, Maria Chiara Pismataro, Violetta Cecchetti, Oriana Tabarrini* and Serena Massari*

Volume 29, Issue 8, 2022

Published on: 23 August, 2021

Page: [1379 - 1407] Pages: 29

DOI: 10.2174/0929867328666210526120534

Price: $65


Viruses are a continuing threat to global health. The lack or limited therapeutic armamentarium against some viral infections and increasing drug resistance issues make the search for new antiviral agents urgent. In recent years, a growing literature highlighted the use of triazolopyrimidine (TZP) heterocycles in the development of antiviral agents, with numerous compounds that showed potent antiviral activities against different RNA and DNA viruses. TZP core represents a privileged scaffold for achieving biologically active molecules, thanks to: i) the synthetic feasibility that allows to variously functionalize TZPs in the different positions of the nucleus, ii) the ability of TZP core to establish multiple interactions with the molecular target, and iii) its favorable pharmacokinetic properties. In the present review, after mentioning selected examples of TZP-based compounds with varied biological activities, we will focus on those antivirals that appeared in the literature in the last 10 years. Approaches used for their identification, the hit-to-lead studies, and the emerged structure-activity relationship will be described. A mention of the synthetic methodologies to prepare TZP nuclei will also be given. In addition, their mechanism of action, the binding mode within the biological target, and pharmacokinetic properties will be analyzed, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of compounds based on the TZP scaffold, which is increasingly used in medicinal chemistry.

Keywords: Triazolopyrimidines, viruses, small molecules, antiviral drugs, pharmacokinetic properties, medicinal chemistry, viral polymerase.

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