End-stage liver diseases have long been a threat to human health, and so far, the treatment of these diseases lacks effective means. Allogenic organ transplantation has become the last straw for most of the patients with end-stage liver diseases. However, this technique has been greatly limited by the serious shortage of donors and other factors, such as immune rejection, drug syndrome, and high cost. Recently, the emergence of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technologies, together with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) techniques, has driven the rapid growth of this field toward liver therapies. There are several basic requirements for liver 3D bioprinting. From information collection of diseased livers, to 3D printing of liver substitutes (containing the major structural, material and functional characters), and to clinical applications, suitable ‘bioinks’ and ‘bioprinters’ have played essential roles. In this review, we highlight the advanced ‘bioinks’ and ‘bioprinters’ that have been used for vascularized and innervated liver tissue 3D bioprinting. Further studies for the incorporation of biliary networks in the bioartificial livers have been emphasized. It is expected that when all the bottle-neck problems for liver 3D bioprinting are solved, batch (i.e. mass) and personalized production of bioartificial livers will make it very easy to treat end-stage liver diseases.