Cancer notably carcinoma represents a prominent health challenge worldwide. A variety of chemotherapeutic agents are being used to deal with a variety of carcinomas. However, these delivering agents not only enter the targeted site but also affect normal tissues yielding poor therapeutic outcomes. Chemotherapeutic-associated problems are being attributed to drug non-specificity resulting from poor drug delivery systems. These problems are now being solved using nanomedicine, which entails using nanoparticles as drug delivery systems or nanocarriers. This nanoparticle-based drug delivery system enhances clinical outcomes by enabling targeted delivery, improving drug internalization, enhanced permeability, easy biodistribution, prolonged circulation and enhanced permeability rate, thereby improving the therapeutic effectiveness of several anticancer agents. Natural Protein-based Nanoparticles (PNPs) such as ferritin, lipoprotein, and lectins from natural sources have gained extensive importance at a scientific community level as nanovehicle for effective drug delivery and photo acoustic labeling replacing several synthetic nanocarriers that have shown limited therapeutic outcomes. The bioavailability of PNP, the chance of genetic engineering techniques to modify their biological properties made them one of the important raw material sources for drug delivery research. This current review highlighted different chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of some carcinomas. It also focused on the wide variety of natural protein sources derived nanoparticles (NPs) as anticancer delivery of agents for cancer therapy.