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Current Bioactive Compounds

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ISSN (Print): 1573-4072
ISSN (Online): 1875-6646

Research Article

Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities of two Euphorbiaceae Family Plants, Euphorbia hirta and Euphorbia thymifolia

Author(s): Jigna Vadalia, Jalpa Sanandia, Vaibhav Bhatt and Navin Sheth*

Volume 18 , Issue 1 , 2022

Published on: 28 March, 2021

Article ID: e260821192498 Pages: 5

DOI: 10.2174/1573407217666210329103718

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Malaria is a major disease in developing countries, and the main issue is its control of resistance against all available anti-malarial drugs. Our aim was to find affordable therapy for this global problem. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of Euphorbia hirta and Euphorbia thymifolia.

Methods: The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated against chloroquine-sensitive (MRC-2), and chloroquine-resistant (RKL-9) strains of Plasmodium falciparum through schizont maturation inhibition and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) activity assays. The cytotoxicity was performed by MTT assay on the Huh7 liver carcinoma cell line.

Results: IC50 for PfLDH activity of E. hirta and E. thymifolia methanol extract against P. faciparum MRC-2 strain was 9.6 and 12.6 μg/mL, respectively, and against P. faciparum RKL-9 strain was 10.2 and 11.56 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol extract of E. thymifolia showed lower IC50 (19.3 μg/mL) than methanol extract of E. hirta (24.7 μg/mL) in the MTT assay against Huh7 cell line.

Conclusion: Both the plant methanol extracts showed a two-fold lower cytotoxic activity against hepatocyte-derived carcinoma cell line (Huh7) compared to in vitro inhibitory activity against P. falciparum strains (MRC-2 and RKL-9).

Keywords: Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia thymifolia, cytotoxicity, antiplasmodial, Plasmodium falciparum, anti-malarial activity.

Graphical Abstract
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