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Current Alzheimer Research


ISSN (Print): 1567-2050
ISSN (Online): 1875-5828

Research Article

In Vivo/Ex Vivo EPR Investigation of the Brain Redox Status and Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in the 5xFAD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

Author(s): Ana Vesković, Đura Nakarada, Aleksandra Pavićević, Bogomir Prokić, Milka Perović, Selma Kanazir, Ana Popović-Bijelić* and Miloš Mojović

Volume 18, Issue 1, 2021

Published on: 24 March, 2021

Page: [25 - 34] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1567205018666210324121156

Price: $65


Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline and total brain atrophy. Despite the substantial scientific effort, the pathological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in AD are currently unknown. In most studies, amyloid β peptide has been considered the key pathological change in AD. However, numerous Aβ-targeting treatments have failed in clinical trials. This implies the need to shift the research focus from Aβ to other pathological features of the disease.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the interplay between mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in AD pathology, using a novel approach that involves the application of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.

Methods: In vivo and ex vivo EPR spectroscopy using two spin probes (aminoxyl radicals) exhibiting different cell-membrane and BBB permeability were employed to assess BBB integrity and brain tissue redox status in the 5xFAD mouse model of AD. In vivo spin probe reduction decay was analyzed using a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Furthermore, 15 K EPR spectroscopy was employed to investigate the brain metal content.

Results: This study has revealed an altered brain redox state, BBB breakdown, as well as ROS-mediated damage to mitochondrial iron-sulfur clusters, and up-regulation of MnSOD in the 5xFAD model.

Conclusion: The EPR spin probes were shown to be excellent in vivo reporters of the 5xFAD neuronal tissue redox state, as well as the BBB integrity, indicating the importance of in vivo EPR spectroscopy application in preclinical studies of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, blood-brain barrier, EPR, mitochondria, spin probes, 5xFAD.

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