Generic placeholder image

Current Hypertension Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-4021
ISSN (Online): 1875-6506

Research Article

Relationship between Augmentation Index and Wall Thickening Fraction during Hypotension in an Animal Model of Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion and Heart Failure

Author(s): Sandra Wray*, Elena Lascano, Jorge Negroni and Edmundo C. Fischer

Volume 17, Issue 2, 2021

Published on: 22 March, 2021

Page: [121 - 130] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/1573402117666210322161445

Price: $65


Aims: Non-invasive indices to evaluate left ventricular changes during ischemic heart failure are needed to quantify the myocardial impairment and the effectiveness of therapeutic manoeuvres. The aims of this work were to calculate the Wall Thickening Fraction (WTF) and the Augmentation Index (AIx) and to assess the relationship between WTF and AIx using data obtained from an animal model with heart failure followed by a myocardial ischemia stage and a reperfusion stage.

Methods: Nine Corriedale sheep that had been monitored for 10 minutes during a basal stage underwent 5-minute myocardial ischemia, followed by 60-minute reperfusion. Seven of them were subjected to an induced heart failure through an overdose of halothane, two of which were treated with intra-aortic counterpulsation during the reperfusion stage. The remaining two animals were monitored during their ischemia-reperfusion stage.

Results: Data obtained in the 5 animals suffering from heart failure followed by myocardial ischemia showed that: a) heart failure induction determined decrease in cardiac output, cardiac index and systolic and diastolic aortic pressure (AoP) with respect to their basal values (p<0.05), b) myocardial ischemia decreased the WTF compared with basal and induced heart failure values (p<0.05), c) during the reperfusion stage accompanied by induced heart failure, WTF increased with respect to values observed during the ischemia induction stage (p<0.05); nevertheless, basal values were not recovered after reperfusion (p<0.05). During this 60-minute stage, systolic and diastolic AoP values were lower (p<0.05) than those at the basal stage.

Conclusion: AIx and WTF values calculated from synchronically recorded values of aortic pressure and left ventricular wall thickness during the reperfusion stage in all animals (n = 9) showed a negative correlation (p<0.05). Analysed data provided evidence of a negative relationship between a left ventricular index of myocardial function and an arterial index obtained from AoP waves.

Keywords: Augmentation index, wall thickening fraction, myocardial ischemia, heart failure, aortic counterpulsation, hypotension.

Graphical Abstract
Cecconi M, De Backer D, Antonelli M, et al. Consensus on circulatory shock and hemodynamic monitoring. task force of the european society of intensive care medicine. Intensive Care Med 2014; 40(12): 1795-815.
[] [PMID: 25392034]
Harvey S, Young D, Brampton W, et al. Pulmonary artery catheters for adult patients in intensive care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; (3): CD003408.
[] [PMID: 16856008]
Rajaram SS, Desai NK, Kalra A, et al. Pulmonary artery catheters for adult patients in intensive care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 28(2): CD003408.
[] [PMID: 23450539]
Laher AE, Watermeyer MJ, Buchanan SK, et al. A review of hemodynamic monitoring techniques, methods and devices for the emergency physician. Am J Emerg Med 2017; 35(9): 1335-47.
[] [PMID: 28366285]
Youssef N, Whitlock RP. The routine use of the pulmonary artery catheter should be abandoned. Can J Cardiol 2017; 33(1): 135-41.
[] [PMID: 27916322]
Evans DC, Doraiswamy VA, Prosciak MP, et al. Complications associated with pulmonary artery catheters: a comprehensive clinical review. Scand J Surg 2009; 98(4): 199-208.
[] [PMID: 20218415]
Marik PE. Obituary: pulmonary artery catheter 1970 to 2013. Ann Intensive Care 2013; 3(1): 38.
[] [PMID: 24286266]
Buckberg GD, Fixler DE, Archie JP, Hoffman JI. Experimental subendocardial ischemia in dogs with normal coronary arteries. Circ Res 1972; 30(1): 67-81.
[] [PMID: 5007529]
Sarnoff SJ, Braunwald E, Welch GH Jr, Case RB, Stainsby WN, Macruz R. Hemodynamic determinants of oxygen consumption of the heart with special reference to the tension-time index. Am J Physiol 1958; 192(1): 148-56.
[] [PMID: 13498167]
Parissis H, Graham V, Lampridis S, Lau M, Hooks G, Mhandu PC. IABP: history-evolution-pathophysiology-indications: what we need to know. J Cardiothorac Surg 2016; 11(1): 122.
[] [PMID: 27487772]
Fischer EIC, Christen AI, Risk MR, Pessana FM, de Forteza E. A new approach to assist postoperative heart failure in an animal model: juxta-aortic counterpulsation. Artif Organs 2002; 26(10): 819-26.
[] [PMID: 12296919]
Sunagawa K, Maughan WL, Sagawa K. Optimal arterial resistance for the maximal stroke work studied in isolated canine left ventricle. Circ Res 1985; 56(4): 586-95.
[] [PMID: 3978773]
Chirinos JA. Ventricular-arterial coupling: Invasive and non-invasive assessment. Artery Res 2013; 7(1): 2-14.
[] [PMID: 24179554]
Kawaguchi O, Pae WE, Daily BB, Pierce WS. Ventriculoarterial coupling with intra-aortic balloon pump in acute ischemic heart failure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999; 117(1): 164-71.
[] [PMID: 9869771]
Cabrera Fischer EI, Christen AI, de Forteza E, Risk MR. Dynamic abdominal and thoracic aortomyoplasty in heart failure: assessment of counterpulsation. Ann Thorac Surg 1999; 67(4): 1022-9.
[] [PMID: 10320246]
Westerhof BE, van den Wijngaard JP, Murgo JP, Westerhof N. Location of a reflection site is elusive: consequences for the calculation of aortic pulse wave velocity. Hypertension 2008; 52(3): 478-83.
[] [PMID: 18695144]
Beckmann M, Jacomella V, Kohler M, et al. Risk stratification of patients with peripheral arterial disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm using aortic augmentation index. PLoS One 2015; 10(10): e0139887.
[] [PMID: 26452151]
Murgo JP, Westerhof N, Giolma JP, Altobelli SA. Aortic input impedance in normal man: relationship to pressure wave forms. Circulation 1980; 62(1): 105-16.
[] [PMID: 7379273]
London GM, Guerin AP. Influence of arterial pulse and reflected waves on blood pressure and cardiac function. Am Heart J 1999; 138(3 Pt 2): 220-4.
[] [PMID: 10467216]
Baulmann J, Schillings U, Rickert S, et al. A new oscillometric method for assessment of arterial stiffness: comparison with tonometric and piezo-electronic methods. J Hypertens 2008; 26(3): 523-8.
[] [PMID: 18300864]
Obara S, Hayashi S, Hazama A, Murakawa M, Katsuda S. Correlation between augmentation index and pulse wave velocity in rabbits. J Hypertens 2009; 27(2): 332-40.
[] [PMID: 19155789]
Horváth IG, Németh A, Lenkey Z, et al. Invasive validation of a new oscillometric device (Arteriograph) for measuring augmentation index, central blood pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity. J Hypertens 2010; 28(10): 2068-75.
[] [PMID: 20651604]
Shimizu M, Kario K. Role of the augmentation index in hypertension. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 2008; 2(1): 25-35.
[] [PMID: 19124405]
Theroux P, Ross J Jr, Franklin D, Kemper WS, Sasayama S. Coronary arterial reperfusion. III. Early and late effects on regional myocardial function and dimensions in conscious dogs. Am J Cardiol 1976; 38(5): 599-606.
[] [PMID: 983957]
Lascano EC, Negroni JA, del Valle HF, Crottogini AJ. Left ventricular regional systolic and diastolic function in conscious sheep undergoing ischemic preconditioning. Cardiovasc Res 1999; 41(1): 77-86.
[] [PMID: 10325955]
Negroni JA, Lascano EC, del Valle HF, Crottogini AJ. ATP-sensitive potassium channels do not have a main role in mediating late preconditioning protection against arrhythmias and stunning in conscious sheep. Basic Res Cardiol 2002; 97(1): 55-64.
[] [PMID: 11998978]
Lieberman AN, Weiss JL, Jugdutt BI, et al. Two-dimensional echocardiography and infarct size: relationship of regional wall motion and thickening to the extent of myocardial infarction in the dog. Circulation 1981; 63(4): 739-46.
[] [PMID: 7471327]
Wray S, Lascano E, Negroni J, Cabrera Fischer E. Assessment of intra-aortic counterpulsation in an animal model of heart failure and myocardial ischemia. Artif Organs 2019; 43(3): E28-40.
[] [PMID: 30062681]
National Research Council of the National Academies. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. 8th Ed. Washington DC, USA: The National Academies Press 2011.
Liu C, Zheng D, Murray A, Liu C. Modeling carotid and radial artery pulse pressure waveforms by curve fitting with Gaussian functions. Biomed Signal Process Control 2013; 8(5): 449-54.
Fantin F, Mattocks A, Bulpitt CJ, Banya W, Rajkumar C. Is augmentation index a good measure of vascular stiffness in the elderly? Age Ageing 2007; 36(1): 43-8.
[] [PMID: 17114200]
Takazawa K. Augmentation index in heart disease. Am J Hypertens 2005; 18(1 Pt 2): 15S-8S.
[] [PMID: 15683727]
Lascano EC, Felice JI, Wray S, et al. Experimental assessment of a myocyte-based multiscale model of cardiac contractile dysfunction. J Theor Biol 2018; 456: 16-28.
Black GW, McARDLE L. The effects of halothane on the peripheral circulation in man. Br J Anaesth 1962; 34(1): 2-10.
[] [PMID: 13869652]
Vatner SF, Smith NT. Effects of halothane on left ventricular function and distribution of regional blood flow in dogs and primates. Circ Res 1974; 34(2): 155-67.
[] [PMID: 4204291]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy