Background: Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is a worldwide public health problem causing 347,070 deaths from December 25, 2019, till May 25, 2020. Phospholipids are structural components of mammalian cytoskeleton and cell membranes. Phosphatidylglycerol is an anionic lipid found in mammalian membranes in low amounts (1-2%) of the total phospholipids. Also, phosphatidylglycerol suppresses viral attachment to the plasma membrane and subsequent replication in lung cells. Phosphatidylglycerol depletion caused by over expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2α induces lipid accumulation in lung alveoli and promotes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). An exogenous-surfactant replacement has been successfully achieved in ARDS and improved oxygenation and lung mechanics. Inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha impairs an early step of COVID-19 replication.
Aim: The present study was carried out to explain the correlation between the administration of exogenous artificial surfactant as well as cytosolic phospholipase A2α inhibitors to improve oxygenation and lung mechanics and inhibit COVID-19 replication.
Methods: Database research was carried out on Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, country-specific journals, and following-up WHO reports published between December 25, 2019 - May 25, 2020.
Results: Till 25 May 2020, coronavirus cases were 5,307,298, with 347,070 deathsand 2,314,849 recovered cases. According to the WHO reports, most COVID-19 deaths seen are in people who suffered from other chronic diseases characterized by phospholipidosis and phosphatidylglycerol deficiency, including hypertension, liver, heart, and lung diseases and diabetes. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) catalyze the cleavage of fatty acids esterified at the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids leading to enhanced inflammation and lung damage. Also, cytosolic phospholipase A2α inhibitors may reduce the accumulation of viral proteins and RNA. In addition, administration of exogenous phospholipid surfactant may help COVID-19 infected patients with ARDS to remove inflammatory mediators.
Conclusion: The present study showed a relation between phosphatidylglycerol deficiency in COVID-19 infected patients with ARDS and/or chronic diseases and their mortality. These findings also showed an important approach for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infections by using cytosolic phospholipase A2α inhibitors and exogenous administration of a specific phospholipid surfactant.