Background: By the end of 2019, the sudden outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global threat. It is called COVID-19 because it was caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) in 2019. A total of 1.9 M deaths and 87.9 M cases have been reported all over the world, where 49M cases have recovered so far. Scientists are working hard to find chemotherapeutics and vaccines for COVID-19. Mutations in SARS-CoV-2 have been observed in a combination of several hazardous stresses, making them more resistant and beneficial. So to break down the viral system, the disease targets are examined.
Objective: In today's review, a comprehensive study of spike protein explains the main purpose of the novel coronavirus and how to prevent the spread of the disease virus cross-transmission from infected to a healthy person.
Methods: Covid-19 has already been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to its result in causing death and severe illness globally. SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious; however, the intermediate host of the novel coronavirus is not clear. To explore the mechanisms of disease, one of the viral targets, such as the spike protein that binds to human cells and causes the disease by altering its genetic structure which is considered along with potential inhibitors.
Results: It has been shown that the interaction of receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein of SARS- CoV-2 spike and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) host receptor and further replication of coronavirus spike protein causes its invasion in the host cell. The human Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, Locus E (LY6E), inhibits the entry of CoV into host cells by interfering with the human gene, inducing spike protein-mediated membrane fusion. Some natural formulations have also been shown to prevent spike protein from binding to the host cell.
Conclusion: With the development of the LY6E gene activator that can inhibit spike protein- ACE2-mediated membrane fusion, new opportunities for SARS-CoV-2 treatment may emerge. Existing antiviral fusion inhibitors and natural compounds targeting spike resistance can serve as a template for further SARS-CoV-2 drug formulation.