Background: Demethoxycurcumin (DMC), a natural derivative of curcumin, has anti-inflammatory activities. However, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated.
Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of DMC on NLRP3 inflammasome priming.
Methods: Protein expression was quantified by western blotting. Inflammatory cytokines were measured by ELISA. Autophagosomes were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy.
Results: DMC inhibited LPS-stimulated NLRP3, pro-caspase-1, and pro-IL-1β expression. Meanwhile, DMC diminished NLRP3-dependent IL-1β maturation, caspase-1 activation, IL-1β, and IL-18 production caused by LPS plus ATP. Moreover, DMC induced autophagy and autophagy inhibitor 3-MA abrogated the role of DMC on NLRP3 inflammasome priming and subsequent activation. DMC also inhibited LPS-stimulated phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB. Additionally, DMC significantly increased the PPARγ expression, and the effects of DMC in NF- κB inhibition, autophagy, and NLRP3 inflammasome priming were abrogated by specific PPARγ antagonist T0070907.
Conclusion: The evidence presented here has confirmed that DMC increases PPARγ expression, resulting in autophagy and NF-κB inhibition, and subsequently inhibits LPS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome priming and subsequent activation.