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Current Pharmaceutical Design


ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

Review Article

Recent Updates on Current and Upcoming Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Diseases

Author(s): Ashif Iqubal, Aamir Khan, Adeeba laeeq, Kabil Malhotra, Mohd. A. Ansari and Syed E. Haque*

Volume 27, Issue 37, 2021

Published on: 24 February, 2021

Page: [3881 - 3900] Pages: 20

DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210224143047

Price: $65


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a complex disease with multifactorial origin where cardiac membrane damage, inflammation, persistent oxidative stress, apoptosis and mitochondrial damage play a significant role. CVD is associated with high mortality rate and poor clinical outcome due to late diagnosis. Therefore, reliable accurate and specific biomarkers help in timely diagnosis and prevention of further damage. Beside creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), etc. which are commonly used biomarkers, we need other supportive and accurate biomarkers for targeted diagnosis, as CVD is a complex diseased condition. Further, mechanism and symptoms of different types of CVD such as myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and heart failure are overlapping, hence in the recent time, multi-markers are used. Multi-markers include markers for oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, membrane damage and energy metabolism. Understanding the etiology of disease, various novel markers have been developed and many of them are in pipeline. For bringing these biomarkers into clinical practice, various statistical criteria such as reclassification, discrimination and calibration are needed to validate and hence these novel biomarkers are yet to be used clinically. For pre-clinical studies, these markers play a vital role in establishing CVD and screening molecules for their cardio protective potential. We therefore, in the current manuscript have discussed various established and other important novel biomarkers for cardiovascular disorders, like biomarker for oxidative stress, cardiac inflammation, membrane damage, plaque rupture and thrombosis.

Keywords: Biomarkers, oxidative stress, inflammation, troponin, galactin-3, pentraxin-3, antigen carbohydrate-125.

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