Background: Drug delivery systems such as hydrogels have become relevant in cardiovascular and metabolic therapies due to their sustained and controlled release properties of drugs, versatile polymer structures, safety, and biodegradability.
Results: The literature presented demonstrates that a hydrogel-based controlled release system increases the therapeutic efficacy in different components of the metabolic syndrome. Hypertension has been the most explored component with advances in in vitro and murine models. However, clinical evidence in humans is scarce, and more translational studies are needed. Hydrogel-based systems for diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia have been little explored. Observations mainly demonstrated an increase in therapeutic efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, for the use of insulin, leptin, and natural components, such as epigallocatechin gallate. In all cases, the hydrogel systems achieve better plasma levels of the loaded compound, higher bioavailability, and low cytotoxicity compared to conventional systems. Also, the evidence existing suggests that the development of an injectable hydrogel system for controlled release of drugs or therapeutic compounds is presented as an attractive option for MeS treatment, and due to the possibility of sustained pharmacological release, there is no need for repeated doses and a safe administration route.
Conclusion: The following review aims to evaluate the use of the hydrogel systems in the therapy of diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, which are the main components of metabolic syndrome.