Background: Marine actinobacteria are a potential resource for natural products; their secondary bioactive metabolites have shown several biological activities. Most of the isolated and identified actinobacteria in Algeria were usually explored from caves, Saharan soil or palm groves. The marine ecosystem is poorly explored and documented.
Methods: Five Streptomyces strains producing bioactive compounds were isolated from Rachgoun Island located in Western Algeria and characterised phenotypically and genotypically using microbiological and 16S rRNA sequencing methods, respectively. The crude extract of the most representative strain “Streptomyces sp. strain SM2.4” and its seven active fractions were characterised by GC/MS analysis.
Results: Streptomyces sp. strain SM2.4 revealed the strongest activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, the fungus Aspergillus niger and was inactive against Gram-negative bacteria.
GC/MS analysis of the methylated crude extract of Streptomyces sp. strain SM2.4 revealed the presence of 11 major compounds, including fatty acids methyl ester (12-methyltridecanoic acid methyl ester, 9-hexadecenoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 14-methylhexadecanoic acid methyl ester and 16-methylheptadecanoic acid methyl ester), 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, (4S,4aS,8aR)-4,8a-dimethyloctahydro-4a(2H)-naphthalenol (geosmin), 2,4-dimethylbenzaldehyde, 3,4-difluorobenzaldehyde, dimethylfuran-2,4-dicarboxylate and pyrrolo(1,2-a)pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-3-(2-methylpropyl)-. Partial purification of the crude extract by Thin-layer chromatography provided seven active fractions, which were tested by radial diffusion assay. GC/MS analysis of the active TLC-fractions revealed the presence of a mixture of active compounds from which 2- (bromomethyl)-2-(2-methylphenyl)-1,3-dioxolane was found to be a new 1,3 dioxolane derivative. Furthermore, 3,4-dimethylbenzamide and pyrido[2,3-d] pyridazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro- 3-(2-methylpropyl)-, were extracted for the first time from a natural source.
Conclusion: Our study reveals that marine Streptomyces sp. strain SM2.4 has an interesting antimicrobial potential due to its panel of bioactive compounds.