Background: This work aims to confirm the anti-diabetic activity of Pallenis spinosa, as recommended in traditional medicine, and perform a chemical analysis of the aerial part of Pallenis spinosa.
Methods: The isolated compounds have been identified by chemical methods and spectrometric analysis, such as UV, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy. With regard to the anti-diabetic activity, a series of experiments have been carried out in vivo on Westar albino rats. Diabetes has been induced in animals by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocine. They have been treated with an aqueous extract from the aerial part of Pallenis spinosa (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg body weight) every day for 21 days.
Results: The chemical analysis of the aerial part of Pallenis spinosa led to the isolation of five known flavonoids, including patuletin 7-galactopyranoside, patuletin-3-O-α-L-rharnnopyranosyl (1-6)-β-D-galactopyranoside, tricin 7-glucopyranoside, tricin, and quercetin. The aqueous extract of both doses, 250 mg and 500 mg, has shown significant activity in reducing blood sugar, with 43.38% for the dose of 250 mg/kg and 37.76% for the dose of 500 mg/kg, as well as a significant decrease in the total fatness, triglycerides, and the total cholesterol levels in animals. The treatment was compared to the diabetes control group (p = 0.05). We used glibenclamide as a reference, and it showed similar results.
Conclusion: In order to explore and develop new anti-diabetic drugs, more studies are needed on this plant for scrutinizing its mechanism of activity.
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