Background: Metformin (MF) is an antidiabetic drug that belongs to class III of the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) characterized by high solubility and low permeability.
Objective: The study aimed to prepare metformin as nanostructured lipid carriers (MF-NLCs) to control the drug release and enhance its permeability through the biological membrane.
Methods: 22 full factorial design was used to make the design of MF-NLCs formulations. MFNLCs were prepared by hot-melt homogenization-ultra sonication technique using beeswax as solid lipid in the presence of liquid lipid (either capryol 90 or oleic acid) and surfactant (either poloxamer 188 or tween 80).
Results: The entrapment efficiency (EE%) of MF-NLCs was ranged from 85.2±2.5 to 96.5±1.8%. The particle size was in the nanoscale (134.6±4.1 to 264.1±4.6 nm). The value of zeta potential has a negative value ranged from -25.6±1.1 to -39.4±0.9 mV. The PDI value was in the range of 0.253±0.01 to 0.496±0.02. The cumulative drug release was calculated for MF-NLCs and it was found that Q12h ranged from 90.5±1.7% for MF-NLC1 to 99.3±2.8 for MF-NLC4. Infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies revealed the compatibility of the drug with other ingredients. MF-NLC4 was found to be the optimized formulation with the best responses.
Conclusion: 22 full factorial design succeed to obtain an optimized formulation which controls the drug release and increases the drug penetration.