Generic placeholder image

Current Bioactive Compounds


ISSN (Print): 1573-4072
ISSN (Online): 1875-6646

Research Article

Effect of Solvent Type, Extraction Temperature, Agitation Speed and Microwave Power on Phenolic Compound Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca L.)

Author(s): Mohand Teffane, Hafid Boudries, Mostapha Bachir Bey, Ahcene Kadi and Farid Boukhalfa*

Volume 18, Issue 1, 2022

Published on: 14 February, 2021

Article ID: e260821191386 Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1573407217666210215085507

Price: $65


Background: Prunus armeniaca L. is widely cultivated around the world. High consumption of its fruit produces a large quantity of the apricot kernel. The valorization of this byproduct in terms of polyphenol compounds seems to be important.

Objective: The aim of the present study is to investigate the best conditions of phenolic compound extraction from apricot kernels in order to determine the effects of different parameters, namely time, stirring speed, solvent type, temperature, and microwave power, on polyphenol yield.

Methods: In this study, the effect of many parameters, such as the type of solvent (ethanol, methanol, acetone and water), the acetone concentration (40-70%, v/v), the extraction time, power of the microwave (100-900 W) and stirring speed on the extraction of Total Phenolic Content (TPC) from apricot kernels was studied, using the approach of single factor experiments.

Results: The importance of agitation speed was determined for polyphenol compound extraction from apricot kernels besides time, temperature and microwave power, whereas the linear agitation in the water bath had no significant effect on the extraction of phenolic compounds. The best extraction conditions were 60% acetone, 300 W of microwave power for 5 min of extraction time, which gave a high TPC of 249.44 ±15.83 mg GAE/g DW. All the extraction conditions showed a significant effect (p <0.05) on the TPC. The antioxidant capacity (DPPH-RSA) of the extract was positively correlated with TPC in all tested methods.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the importance of agitation speed was determined for the extraction of phenolic compounds from apricot kernels by maceration. However, the linear agitation in the water bath had no significant effect on the extraction. Apricot kernel seems to be a good source of polyphenols compared to other sources mentioned in the previous studies present in literature.

Keywords: Apricot kernels, polyphenols, antioxidant activity, extraction condition, optimization, phenolic content.

Graphical Abstract
Ghorab, H.; Lammi, C.; Arnoldi, A.; Kabouche, Z.; Aiello, G. Proteomic analysis of sweet algerian apricot kernels (Prunus armeniaca L.) by combinatorial peptide ligand libraries and LC-MS/MS. Food Chem., 2018, 239(11), 935-945.
[] [PMID: 28873655]
Audergon, J. M. Abricots, frais ou transformés, une histoire partagée !, Dossier Fruits: Un plaisir à conserver - Jardins de France 646 2017, 4, 31-34.
Tanwar, B.; Modgil, R.; Goyal, A. Effect of detoxification on biological quality of wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernel. J. Sci. Food Agric., 2019, 99(2), 517-528.
[] [PMID: 29926917]
Górnaś, P.; Mišina, I.; Grāvīte, I.; Soliven, A.; Kaufmane, E.; Segliņa, D. Tocochromanols composition in kernels recovered from different apricot varieties: RP-HPLC/FLD and RP-UPLC-ESI/MS(n) study. Nat. Prod. Res., 2015, 29(13), 1222-1227.
[] [PMID: 25567675]
Arbouche, R.; Arbouche, F.; Arbouche, H.S.; Arbouche, Y. Effets de la nature du complément azoté (tourteau d’amande d’abricot vs tourteau de soja) sur les performances d’engraissement et la qualité des carcasses des agneaux Ouled Djellal (Algérie). Rev. Med. Vet., 2014, 165, 11-12, 338-343.
Alpaslan, M.; Hayta, M. Apricot kernel: Physical and chemical properties. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 2006, 83(5), 83-85.
Durmaz, G.; Alpaslan, M. Antioxidant properties of roasted apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernel. Food Chem., 2007, 100(3), 1177-1181.
Korekar, G.; Stobdan, T.; Arora, R.; Yadav, A.; Singh, S.B. Antioxidant capacity and phenolics content of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernel as a function of genotype. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 2011, 66(4), 376-383.
[] [PMID: 21779763]
Eyidemir, E.; Hayta, M. The effect of apricot kernel flour incorporation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of noodle Afri. J. Biotech., 2009, 8(1), 085-090, 5.
Dulf, F.V.; Vodnar, D.C.; Dulf, E-H.; Pintea, A. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, lipids and antioxidant potential of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) pomace fermented by two filamentous fungal strains in solid state system. Chem. Cent. J., 2017, 11(1), 92.
[] [PMID: 29086904]
Yiğit, D.; Yiğit, N.; Mavi, A. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bitter and sweet apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 2009, 42(4), 346-352.
[] [PMID: 19330262]
Mokrani, A.; Madani, K. Effect of solvent, time and temperature on the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit. Separ. Purif. Tech., 2016, 162, 68-76.
Sarkar, A.; Ghosh, U. Effect of extraction temperature and technique on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Tamarindus indica seeds. Res. J. Recent Sci., 2017, 6(2), 10-15.
Bouras, M.; Chadni, M.; Barba, F.J.; Grimi, N.; Bals, O.; Vorobiev, E. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Quercus bark. Ind. Crops Prod., 2015, 77, 590-601.
Molyneux, P. The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicryl- hydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2004, 26(2), 211-219.
Benkerou, F.; Louaileche, H. Bachir bey, M. Optimized ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total phenolics and antioxidant activity of date (Phoenix dactylifera l.) using response surface methodology, Ann.UDJG. Food Technol., 2018, 42(2), 9-22.
Matthäus, B. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from residues of different oilseeds. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50(12), 3444-3452.
[] [PMID: 12033809]
Musa, K.H.; Abdullah, A.; Jusoh, K.; Subramaniam, V. Antioxidant activity of pink-flesh guava (Psidium guajava L.): Effect of extraction techniques and solvents. Food Anal. Methods, 2011, 4(1), 100-107.
Al-Bakri, S. A.; Nima, Z. A.; Jabri, R. R.; Ajeel, E. A. Antibacterial activity of apricot kernel extract containing amygdalin Iraqi J. Sci., 2010, 51(4), 571-576.
Brglez Mojzer, E.; Knez Hrnčič, M.; Škerget, M.; Knez, Ž.; Bren, U. Polyphenols: Extraction methods, antioxidative action, bioavailability and anticarcinogenic effects. Molecules, 2016, 21(7), 901.
[] [PMID: 27409600]
Ajila, C.M.; Brar, S.K.; Verma, M.; Tyagi, R.D.; Godbout, S.; Valéro, J.R. Extraction and analysis of polyphenols: Recent trends. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 2011, 31(3), 227-249.
[] [PMID: 21073258]
Santos-Buelga, C.; Gonzalez-Manzano, S.; Dueñas, M.; Gonzalez-Paramas, A.M. Extraction and Isolation of Phenolic Compounds.Natural Products Isolation; Sarker, S.D.; Nahar, L., Eds.; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2012, Vol. 864, pp. 427-464.
AL Juhaimi, F.; Özcan Musa., M.; Ghafoor, K. The effect of microwave roasting on bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of apricot kernel and oils Food Chemistry, 2017, 9, 100.
[] [PMID: 29146358]
Kchaou, W.; Abbès, F.; Blecker, C.; Attia, H.; Besbes, S. Effects of extraction solvents on phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of Tunisian date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Ind. Crops Prod., 2013, 45, 262-269.
Drużyńska, B.; Stępniewska, A.; Wołosiak, R. The influence of time and type of solvent on efficiency of the extraction of polyphenols from green tea and antioxidant properties obtained extracts. Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment., 2007, 6(1), 27-36.
Sultana, B.; Anwar, F.; Ashraf, M. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts. Molecules, 2009, 14(6), 2167-2180.
Spigno, G.; Tramelli, L.; De Faveri, D.M. Effects of extraction time, temperature and solvent on concentration and antioxidant activity of grape marc phenolics. J. Food Eng., 2007, 81(1), 200-208.
Dai, J.; Mumper, R.J. Plant phenolics: Extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules, 2010, 15(10), 7313-7352.
[] [PMID: 20966876]
Han, Z.P.; Liu, R.L.; Cui, H.Y.; Zhang, Z.Q. Microwave-assisted extraction and lc/ms analysis of phenolic antioxidants in sweet apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernel skins. J. Liq. Chromatogr. Relat. Technol., 2013, 36(15), 2182-2195.
Chew, K.; Ng, S.Y.; Thoo, Y.Y.; Khoo, M.Z.; Wan, A. W.M.; Ho, C.W. Effect of ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature on the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Centella asiatica extracts. Int. Food Res. J., 2011, 18, 571-578.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy