Generic placeholder image

Current Nutraceuticals

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2665-9786
ISSN (Online): 2665-9794

Research Article

Comparison of Serum Choline and Trimethylamine N-oxide after Ingestion of Alpha Glyceryl Phosphoryl Choline and Choline Salts

Author(s): Greggory R. Davis, David Bellar* and Randy L. Aldret

Volume 2, Issue 2, 2021

Published on: 11 February, 2021

Page: [154 - 158] Pages: 5

DOI: 10.2174/2665978602666210212115014

Abstract

Background: Choline supplements may provide potential improvements to health outcomes and exercise performance, yet the bioavailability of choline supplements is poorly understood.

Objective: The objective of the present investigation was to examine the levels of serum Choline and Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) after two doses of Alpha Glyceryl Phosphoryl Choline (AGPC) in comparison to common choline salts.

Methods: High-dose and low-dose A-GPC along with choline salt supplements were administered to participants over the course of four weeks in a randomized, double-blind fashion. Serum levels of choline and TMAO, the gut byproduct of choline, were examined acutely over the course of four hours and again following one week and four weeks of supplementation.

Results: High-dose A-GPC and the choline chloride supplement yielded significantly higher choline levels compared to low-dose A-GPC and choline bitartate (F=31.31, p<0.01) though the effect of time was insignificant. TMAO levels were not significantly different between supplements (F=1.96. p=0.1361) or across time (F=0.0795, p=0.7795).

Conclusion: A-GPC increases serum choline similar to that seen with high-dose choline chloride ingestion without a concomitant increase in TMAO levels and therefore, may be a desirable option as a dietary supplement.

Keywords: trimethylamine N-oxide, bioavailability, choline bitartate, choline chloride, alpha-glyceryl phosphoryl choline, choline alfoscerate.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Zeisel SH, Da Costa KA, Franklin PD, et al. Choline, an essential nutrient for humans. FASEB J 1991; 5(7): 2093-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fasebj.5.7.2010061] [PMID: 2010061]
[2]
Lippelt DP, van der Kint S, van Herk K, Naber M. No acute effects of choline bitartrate food supplements on memory in healthy, young, human adults. PLoS One 2016; 11(6): e0157714.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157714] [PMID: 27341028]
[3]
Spector SA, Jackman MR, Sabounjian LA, Sakkas C, Landers DM, Willis WT. Effect of choline supplementation on fatigue in trained cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27(5): 668-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199505000-00008] [PMID: 7674870]
[4]
Warber JP, Patton JF, Tharion WJ, et al. The effects of choline supplementation on physical performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000; 10(2): 170-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.10.2.170] [PMID: 10861337]
[5]
Amenta F, Parnetti L, Gallai V, Wallin A. Treatment of cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s disease with cholinergic precursors. Ineffective treatments or inappropriate approaches? Mech Ageing Dev 2001; 122(16): 2025-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0047-6374(01)00310-4] [PMID: 11589920]
[6]
Lopez CM, Govoni S, Battaini F, et al. Effect of a new cognition enhancer, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, on scopolamine-induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1991; 39(4): 835-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-3057(91)90040-9] [PMID: 1662399]
[7]
De Jesus Moreno Moreno M. Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Ther 2003; 25(1): 178-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0149-2918(03)90023-3] [PMID: 12637119]
[8]
Barbagallo Sangiorgi G, Barbagallo M, Giordano M, Meli M, Panzarasa R. α-Glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks. An Italian multicenter clinical trial. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994; 717: 253-69.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1994.tb12095.x] [PMID: 8030842]
[9]
Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Gonzalez A, et al. The effects of acute and prolonged CRAM supplementation on reaction time and subjective measures of focus and alertness in healthy college students. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2010; 7: 39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-7-39] [PMID: 21156078]
[10]
Bellar D, LeBlanc NR, Campbell B. The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2015; 12: 42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-015-0103-x] [PMID: 26582972]
[11]
Brownawell AM, Carmines EL, Montesano F. Safety assessment of AGPC as a food ingredient. Food Chem Toxicol 2011; 49(6): 1303-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.03.012] [PMID: 21414376]
[12]
Janeiro MH, Ramírez MJ, Milagro FI, Martínez JA, Solas M. Implication of Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO) in Disease: Potential Biomarker or New Therapeutic Target. Nutrients 2018; 10(10): 10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10101398] [PMID: 30275434]
[13]
Ufnal M, Zadlo A, Ostaszewski R. TMAO: A small molecule of great expectations. Nutrition 2015; 31(11-12): 1317-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2015.05.006] [PMID: 26283574]
[14]
Tseng HC, Graves DJ. Natural methylamine osmolytes, trimethylamine N-oxide and betaine, increase tau-induced polymerization of microtubules. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 250(3): 726-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1998.9382] [PMID: 9784413]
[15]
Lupachyk S, Watcho P, Stavniichuk R, Shevalye H, Obrosova IG. Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Diabetes 2013; 62(3): 944-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db12-0716] [PMID: 23364451]
[16]
Zeisel SH, daCosta KA, Youssef M, Hensey S. Conversion of dietary choline to trimethylamine and dimethylamine in rats: dose-response relationship. J Nutr 1989; 119(5): 800-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/119.5.800] [PMID: 2723829]
[17]
Wurtman RJ, Hirsch MJ, Growdon JH. Lecithin consumption raises serum-free-choline levels. Lancet 1977; 2(8028): 68-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(77)90067-8] [PMID: 69151]
[18]
Marcus L, Soileau J, Judge LW, Bellar D. Evaluation of the effects of two doses of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on physical and psychomotor performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2017; 14: 39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-017-0196-5] [PMID: 29042830]
[19]
Miller CA, Corbin KD, da Costa KA, et al. Effect of egg ingestion on trimethylamine-N-oxide production in humans: a randomized, controlled, dose-response study. Am J Clin Nutr 2014; 100(3): 778-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.087692] [PMID: 24944063]
[20]
Gareri P, Castagna A, Cotroneo AM, Putignano S, De Sarro G, Bruni AC. The role of citicoline in cognitive impairment: pharmacological characteristics, possible advantages, and doubts for an old drug with new perspectives. Clin Interv Aging 2015; 10: 1421-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S87886] [PMID: 26366063]
[21]
Mohs RC, Davis KL, Tinklenberg JR, Hollister LE. Choline chloride effects on memory in the elderly. Neurobiol Aging 1980; 1(1): 21-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0197-4580(80)90020-2] [PMID: 7266731]
[22]
Thal LJ, Rosen W, Sharpless NS, Crystal H. Choline chloride fails to improve cognition of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 1981; 2(3): 205-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0197-4580(81)90022-1] [PMID: 7312098]
[23]
Traini E, Bramanti V, Amenta F. Choline alphoscerate (alpha-glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline) an old choline- containing phospholipid with a still interesting profile as cognition enhancing agent. Curr Alzheimer Res 2013; 10(10): 1070-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/15672050113106660173] [PMID: 24156263]
[24]
Velasquez MT, Ramezani A, Manal A, Raj DS. Trimethylamine N-oxide: The good, the bad and the unknown. Toxins (Basel) 2016; 8(11): 326.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins8110326] [PMID: 27834801]

© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy