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Medicinal Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-4064
ISSN (Online): 1875-6638

Research Article

Synthesis, Molecular Docking, BSA, and In Vitro Reactivation Study of Imidazopyridine Oximes Against Paraoxon Inhibited Acetylcholinesterase

Author(s): Ashima Thakur, Jayant Patwa, Abha Sharma* and Swaran Jeet Singh Flora*

Volume 18 , Issue 2 , 2022

Published on: 08 February, 2021

Page: [273 - 287] Pages: 15

DOI: 10.2174/1573406417666210208223240

Abstract

Aim: To synthesize and evaluate the fused heterocyclic imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine based oxime as a reactivator against paraoxon inhibited acetylcholinesterase.

Background: Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) include parathion, malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos, and diazinon, which are commonly used in agriculture for enhancing agricultural productivity via killing crop-damaging pests. However, people may get exposed to OPs pesticides unintentionally/intentionally via ingestion, inhalation, or dermal. The current treatment regimen includes reactivator such as mono or bis-pyridinium oximes along with anticholinergic and anticonvulsant drugs that are recommended for the treatment of OP poisoning. Unfortunately, the drawback of the existing reactivator is the permanent charge present on the pyridinium, making them inefficient to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reactivate OP-inhibited central nervous system (CNS) acetylcholinesterase. Therefore, there is a need of a reactivator that could cross the BBB and reactivate the OP inhibited acetylcholinesterase.

Objective: The objectives of the study were synthesis, molecular docking, BSA binding, and in-vitro estimation of oximes of various substituted imidazo [1,2-a]pyridine against paraoxon inhibited acetylcholinesterase.

Methods: The reactivators were synthesized in three steps and characterized using various spectroscopic techniques. The molecular docking study was performed on 2WHP and 3ZLV PDB using the Glide-XP software. The acid dissociation constant (pKa) of oximes was calculated experimentally, and the drug-likeness properties of the oximes were calculated in silico using Molinspiration and Swiss ADME software. The binding of oximes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also investigated using a Fluorescence spectrophotometer. The reactivation potential of the oximes was determined by in vitro enzymatic assay.

Results: The In-silico study inferred that the synthesized molecules fulfilled the parameters required for a successful CNS drug candidate. Furthermore, in-vitro enzymatic assay indicated reasonable reactivation potential of the oximes against paraoxon-inhibited AChE. The binding of oximes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) revealed that there was a static quenching of intrinsic fluorescence of BSA by the oxime. The binding constant value and number of binding sites were found to be 0.24 x 104 mol-1 and 1, respectively.

Conclusion: The results of the study concluded that this scaffold could be used for further designing of more efficient uncharged reactivators.

Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, imidazopyridine oxime, organophosphorous, obidoxime, 2-PAM, [1, 2-a]pyridine.

Graphical Abstract
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