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Current Neuropharmacology

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1570-159X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6190

General Review Article

Recent Discussions on Dopamine Supersensitivity Psychosis: Eight Points to Consider When Diagnosing Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

Author(s): Nobuhisa Kanahara*, Hiroshi Kimura, Yasunori Oda, Fumiaki Ito and Masaomi Iyo

Volume 19 , Issue 12 , 2021

Published on: 25 January, 2021

Page: [2214 - 2226] Pages: 13

DOI: 10.2174/1570159X19666210125152815

Price: $65

Abstract

Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis is a clinical concept characterized by an unstable psychotic state and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia patients at the chronic stage. This state is thought to be induced by compensatory upregulation of dopamine D2 receptors, which is provoked by long-term and/or high-dose medications. Recent clinical data suggest that patients who responded well to medication but later exhibit dopamine supersensitivity develop tolerance to antipsychotics’ effects and eventually transit to treatment-resistant schizophrenia, indicating that dopamine supersensitivity could be an etiology contributing to treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, clinicians and researchers consider dopamine supersensitivity psychosis a minor phenomenon during the clinical course and do not make much of it. This opinion is often based on numerous clinical data indicating that dopamine supersensitivity psychosis is a relatively rare event. This review examines the data dealing with dopamine supersensitivity with the five themes of frequency, severity, withdrawal studies, switching to aripiprazole, and tardive dyskinesia. These effects of these themes on discussions of the clinical meaning of dopamine supersensitivity psychosis are then reviewed. The present review will help clinicians speculate about the background of severe psychopathology in a given patient; to make diagnoses of treatment-resistant schizophrenia and dopamine supersensitivity psychosis; and plan antipsychotic medication regimens with the goal of achieving better long-term prognosis.

Keywords: Antipsychotic, dopamine, dopamine partial agonist, tardive dyskinesia, receptor, relapse, withdrawal.

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