Generic placeholder image

The Natural Products Journal

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2210-3155
ISSN (Online): 2210-3163

Research Article

Anti-obesity Effects of Some Plant Extracts in Rats Fed with High-Fat Diet

Author(s): Diaa B. Al-Azhary, Hanan M. Amin and Eman M. Kotb*

Volume 12, Issue 4, 2022

Published on: 12 January, 2022

Article ID: e120122190631 Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/2210315511666210122155447

Price: $65

Abstract

Background and Aim: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions around the world, resulting in severe health effects and financial costs, which have led to prompt actions and the advancement of phytochemistry technologies as new treatment techniques. This study aimed to assess and compare the anti-obesity, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of some common and safe doses of natural products like bitter orange, flax seeds, and ginger in adult male albino rats fed a high-fat diet.

Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were divided into five groups (n=10): a negative control group that received a balanced normal diet, a positive control group that received a high-fat diet (HFD) for eight weeks, and other 3 groups were fed HFD for eight weeks receiving daily 20 mg/kg/day of bitter orange fruit aqueous extract (standardized at 10% p- synephrine) or 250 mg/kg/- day of flax seeds ethanol extract or 200 mg/kg/day of ginger rhizomes ethanol extract for the last 4 weeks. All rats were sacrificed at the end of the study to obtain blood, liver, and kidney samples for biochemical and histopathological analyses.

Results: The herbal extracts reduced body weight, lipid profile, inflammatory markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and C reactive protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and liver enzymes, all of which had been increased by the HFD. Furthermore, treatment with herbal extracts resulted in a significant reduction and improvement of the proliferated inflammatory infiltration, congested veins, and fatty vacuolated vesicles induced by HFD in liver and kidney tissues. Bitter orange exhibited the strongest anti-obesity effects, while flaxseed and ginger showed the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in response to the HFD.

Conclusion: In obese rats, the use of these herbal extracts displayed a variety of possible protective and therapeutic effects. As a result, they are recommended for obese people, and further research is needed to determine the effects of a combination of various biochemical components found in these plant extracts on obesity and related disorders.

Keywords: Obesity, oxidative stress, bitter orange, flax, ginger, rats, high-fat diet.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Chan, R.S.; Woo, J. Prevention of overweight and obesity: How effective is the current public health approach. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2010, 7(3), 765-783.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7030765] [PMID: 20617002]
[2]
Kolsi, R.B.A.; Jardak, N.; Hajkacem, F.; Chaaben, R.; Jribi, I.; Feki, A.E.; Rebai, T.; Jamoussi, K.; Fki, L.; Belghith, H.; Belghith, K. Anti-obesity effect and protection of liver-kidney functions by Codium fragile sulphated polysaccharide on high fat diet induced obese rats. Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 2017, 102, 119-129.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.04.017] [PMID: 28392390]
[3]
Pi-Sunyer, X. The medical risks of obesity. Postgrad. Med., 2009, 121(6), 21-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3810/pgm.2009.11.2074] [PMID: 19940414]
[4]
Figueiredo, P.R.L.d.; Siebra, A.L.A.; Neto, L.J.L.; Oliveira, L.R.d.; Ramos, A.G.B.; Delmondes, G.A.j. Obesity and Natural Products. J. Food Nutr. Res., 2015, 3(8), 540-549.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.12691/jfnr-3-8-9]
[5]
Fried, M.; Hainer, V.; Basdevant, A.; Buchwald, H.; Deitel, M.; Finer, N.; Greve, J.W.; Horber, F.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.; Scopinaro, N.; Steffen, R.; Tsigos, C.; Weiner, R.; Widhalm, K. Interdisciplinary European guidelines on surgery of severe obesity. Obes. Facts, 2008, 1(1), 52-59.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000113937] [PMID: 20054163]
[6]
Sule, J.O.; Arhoghro, M.E.; Onyije, F.M. Antiobesity effect of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) on wistar albino rat fed with formulated fatty diet. J. Phys. Pharm. Adv., 2016, 6(8), 913-918.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/jppa.20160916044556]
[7]
Mercader, J.; Wanecq, E.; Chen, J.; Carpéné, C. Isopropylnorsynephrine is a stronger lipolytic agent in human adipocytes than synephrine and other amines present in Citrus aurantium. J. Physiol. Biochem., 2011, 67(3), 443-452.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13105-011-0078-2] [PMID: 21336650]
[8]
Arablou, T.; Aryaeian, N. The effect of ginger (Zingiber Officinale) as an ancient medicinal plant on improving blood lipids. J. Herb. Med., 2018, 12, 11-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hermed.2017.09.005]
[9]
Wang, J.; Ke, W.; Bao, R.; Hu, X.; Chen, F. Beneficial effects of ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity and metabolic syndrome: A review. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 2017, 1398(1), 83-98.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13375] [PMID: 28505392]
[10]
Goyal, A.; Sharma, V.; Upadhyay, N.; Gill, S.; Sihag, M. Flax and flaxseed oil: An ancient medicine & modern functional food. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2014, 51(9), 1633-1653.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-1247-9] [PMID: 25190822]
[11]
Arora, T.; Rudenko, O.; Egerod, K.L.; Husted, A.S.; Kovatcheva- Datchary, P.; Akrami, R. Microbial fermentation of flaxseed fibers modulates the transcriptome of GPR41-expressing enteroendocrine cells and protects mice against diet-induced obesity. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab., 2018.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00391] [PMID: 30562060]
[12]
Patrick, Ambrose Teru; Samson, Faith P. Agriculture and Healthcare, 2015, 5(18), 2224-3208.
[13]
Kadir, Noor Atiqah Aizan Abdul; Rahmat, Asmah; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E. Protective effects of tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea) extract against high fat diet induced obesity in sprague-dawley rats. J. Obesity, 2015.
[14]
Stohs, S.J.; Preuss, H.G.; Shara, M. The safety of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Phytother. Res., 2011, 25(10), 1421-1428.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.3490] [PMID: 21480414]
[15]
Sahar, Y. Al-Okbi, Doha A. Mohamed, Thanaa E. Hamed, Reham SH. Esmail, Souria M. Donya: Prevention of renal dysfunction by nutraceuticals prepared from oil rich plant foods. J. Trop. Biomed., 2014, 4(8), 618-627.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B66]
[16]
Zollner, N.; Kirsch, K. Determination of serum total lipids calorimetrically. Z. Gesamte Exp. Med., 1962, 135, 545.
[17]
Fossati, P.; Lorenzo, P. Serum Triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogenperoxide. Clin. Chem., 1982, 28(10), 2077-2080.
[18]
Tietz, N.W. Clinical Guide to Laboratory tests, 3rd ed; WB. Saunders: Philadelphia, 1995, pp. 268-273.
[19]
Satoh, K. Serum lipid peroxide in cerebrovascular disorders determined by a new colorimetric method. Clin. Chim. Acta, 1978, 90(1), 37-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-8981(78)90081-5] [PMID: 719890]
[20]
Marklund, S.; Marklund, G. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur. J. Biochem., 1974, 47(3), 469-474.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1974.tb03714.x] [PMID: 4215654]
[21]
Moron, M.S.; Depierre, J.W.; Mannervik, B. Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1979, 582(1), 67-78.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-4165(79)90289-7] [PMID: 760819]
[22]
Abelev, G.I. Alpha-fetoprotein as a marker of embryo-specific differentiations in normal and tumor tissues. Transplant. Rev., 1974, 20(0), 3-37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-065X.1974.tb00139.x] [PMID: 4135841]
[23]
Uotila, M.; Ruoslahti, E.; Engvall, E. Two-site sandwich enzyme immunoassay with monoclonal antibodies to human alpha-fetoprotein. J. Immunol. Methods, 1981, 42(1), 11-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1759(81)90219-2] [PMID: 6165775]
[24]
Henry, R.J. Clinical Chemistry, Principles and Techniques; Hoeber Medical Harper-Row, 1964, p. 190.
[25]
Chien, M-Y.; Ku, Y-H.; Chang, J-M.; Yang, C-M.; Chen, C-H. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet. Yao Wu Shi Pin Fen Xi, 2016, 24(3), 594-601.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2016.01.012] [PMID: 28911566]
[26]
Rolls, B.J.; Hammer, V.A. Fat, carbohydrate, and the regulation of energy intake. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1995, 62(5)(Suppl.), 1086S-1095S.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/62.5.1086S] [PMID: 7484926]
[27]
Malik, Z.A. Attenuation of high-fat diet induced body weight gain, adiposity and biochemical anomalies a. Int. J. Pharmacol., 2011, 7(8), 801-812.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2011.801.812]
[28]
Peixoto, J.S.; Comar, J.F.; Moreira, C.T.; Soares, A.A.; de Oliveira, A.L.; Bracht, A.; Peralta, R.M. Effects of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) fruit extracts and p-synephrine on metabolic fluxes in the rat liver. Molecules, 2012, 17(5), 5854-5869.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules17055854] [PMID: 22592089]
[29]
Kor, J.B.Z.N.M. Physiological and pharmaceutical effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) as a valuable medicinal plant. Eur. J. Exp. Biol., 2014, 4(1), 87-90.
[30]
Jasem Hannon Hashim Al-Awadi, K.H.R. Alaa Jawad Hassen.: High Fat Diet Induce Hyperlipidemia Incidences With Sever Changes in Liver Tissue of Male Albino Rats: A Histological and Biochemical Study. Kerbala J. Pharmaceut. Sci, 2013, 6.
[31]
Szapary, P.O. B. L.: Flaxseed and flaxseed oil in the management of hypercholesterolemia Part 1. Altern Med Alert, 2001, 12, 140-143.
[32]
S.M., Moustafa, R.A.: Effect of Combined Administration of Ginger and Cinnamon on High Fat Diet induced Hyperlipidemia in Rats. J. Pharm. Chem. Biol. Sci, 2015, 3(4), 561-572.
[33]
Haaz, S.; Fontaine, K.R.; Cutter, G.; Limdi, N.; Perumean-Chaney, S.; Allison, D.B. Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity: an update. Obes. Rev., 2006, 7(1), 79-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00195.x] [PMID: 16436104]
[34]
Echeverría, F.; Valenzuela, R.; Bustamante, A.; Álvarez, D.; Ortiz, M.; Soto-Alarcon, S.A.; Muñoz, P.; Corbari, A.; Videla, L.A. Attenuation of high-fat diet-induced rat liver oxidative stress and steatosis by combined hydroxytyrosol- (HT-) eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation mainly relies on HT. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev., 2018, 2018, 5109503.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/5109503] [PMID: 30057681]
[35]
Samy Ali Hussein, Y. A. F. E. S., Mohamed Ragaa Hassanien and Mohamed- Magdy F. Hammad.: Evaluation of the protective role of flaxseed oil on inflammatory mediators, antioxidant defense system and oxidative stress of liver tissue in hypercholesterolemic rats. Int. J. Pharma Sci., 2016, 6, 1480-1489.
[36]
Zou, Z.; Xi, W.; Hu, Y.; Nie, C.; Zhou, Z. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits. Food Chem., 2016, 196, 885-896.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.09.072] [PMID: 26593569]
[37]
Amin, H.M.; Tawfek, N.S.; Abo-El Hussein, B.K.; El-Ghany, M.S.A. Anti-obesity potential of orlistat and amphetamine in rats fed on high fat diet. Sciences (New York), 2015, 5(02), 453-461.
[38]
Babalı, A.; Cakal, E.; Purnak, T.; Bıyıkoğlu, I.; Cakal, B.; Yüksel, O.; Köklü, S. Serum α-fetoprotein levels in liver steatosis. Hepatol. Int., 2009, 3(4), 551-555.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-009-9156-8] [PMID: 19890679]
[39]
Imamura, T.; Tanaka, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kitamura, K.; Ikegami, A.; Takahashi, A.; Niikawa, J.; Mitamura, K. Significance of measurement of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in acute pancreatitis. J. Gastroenterol., 2002, 37(11), 935-938.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s005350200157] [PMID: 12483249]
[40]
Gomaa, A.M.; El-Aziz, E.A. Vitamin D reduces high-fat diet induced weight gain and C-reactive protein, increases interleukin-10, and reduces CD86 and caspase-3. Pathophysiology, 2017, 24(1), 31-37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathophys.2017.01.003] [PMID: 28143686]
[41]
Suganami, T.; Nishida, J.; Ogawa, Y. A paracrine loop between adipocytes and macrophages aggravates inflammatory changes: role of free fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2005, 25(10), 2062-2068.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.0000183883.72263.13] [PMID: 16123319]
[42]
Khan, R.A.; Mallick, N.; Feroz, Z. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2016, 29(3), 843-852.
[PMID: 27166529]
[43]
Naderi, Z.; Mozaffari-Khosravi, H.; Dehghan, A.; Nadjarzadeh, A.; Huseini, H.F. Effect of ginger powder supplementation on nitric oxide and C-reactive protein in elderly knee osteoarthritis patients: A 12-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. J. Tradit. Complement. Med., 2015, 6(3), 199-203.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2014.12.007] [PMID: 27419081]
[44]
Wu, Q.; Li, R. Lanan Wassy Soromou; Na Chen; Xue Yuan; Guoquan Sun; Beibei Li; Haihua Feng: p-Synephrine suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibition of the NF-jB signaling pathway. Inflamm. Res., 2014, 63, 429-439.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-014-0715-7] [PMID: 24487736]
[45]
Sawalha, S.M.; Arráez-Román, D.; Segura-Carretero, A.; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A. Quantification of main phenolic compounds in sweet and bitter orange peel using CE–MS/MS. Food Chem., 2009, 116(2), 567-574.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.003]
[46]
Mashhadi, N.S.; Ghiasvand, R.; Askari, G.; Hariri, M.; Darvishi, L.; Mofid, M.R. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of ginger in health and physical activity: Review of current evidence. Int. J. Prev. Med., 2013, 4(Suppl. 1), S36-S42.
[PMID: 23717767]
[47]
Pan, A.; Demark-Wahnefried, W.; Ye, X.; Yu, Z.; Li, H.; Qi, Q.; Sun, J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Lin, X. Effects of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement on C-reactive protein, IL-6 and retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patients. Br. J. Nutr., 2009, 101(8), 1145-1149.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114508061527] [PMID: 18775100]
[48]
Lee, J.S.; Jun, D.W.; Kim, E.K.; Jeon, H.J.; Nam, H.H.; Saeed, W.K. Histologic and metabolic derangement in high-fat, high-fructose, and combination diet animal models. Scientific World J., 2015, 2015, 306326-306326.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/306326] [PMID: 26090514]
[49]
Altunkaynak, M.E.; Ozbek, E.; Altunkaynak, B.Z.; Can, I.; Unal, D.; Unal, B. The effects of high-fat diet on the renal structure and morphometric parametric of kidneys in rats. J. Anat., 2008, 212(6), 845-852.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.00902.x] [PMID: 18510511]
[50]
Han, H.Y.; Lee, S.K.; Choi, B.K.; Lee, D.R.; Lee, H.J.; Kim, T.W. Preventive effect of citrus aurantium peel extract on high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver in mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2019, 42(2), 255-260.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b18-00702] [PMID: 30713255]
[51]
Ullah, N.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, T.; Ahmad, W. Nephroprotective potentials of Citrus aurantium: A prospective pharmacological study on experimental models. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2014, 27(3), 505-510.
[PMID: 24811809]
[52]
Han, H.; Qiu, F.; Zhao, H.; Tang, H.; Li, X.; Shi, D. Dietary flaxseed oil prevents western-type diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in apolipoprotein-e knockout mice. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev., 2017, 2017, 3256241.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/3256241] [PMID: 29081885]
[53]
Velasquez, M.T.; Bhathena, S.J.; Ranich, T.; Schwartz, A.M.; Kardon, D.E.; Ali, A.A.; Haudenschild, C.C.; Hansen, C.T. Dietary flaxseed meal reduces proteinuria and ameliorates nephropathy in an animal model of type II diabetes mellitus. Kidney Int., 2003, 64(6), 2100-2107.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00329.x] [PMID: 14633132]
[54]
Mashael Mohammed Bin-Meferij, A.A.S. Refaat Ali Eid and Attalla Farag El-kott.: Anti-obesity and anti-hepatosteatosis effects of dietary zingiber officinale extract in male obese rats. Int. J. Pharmacol., 2017, 13, 620-627.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2017.620.627]
[55]
Yang, M.; Liu, C.; Jiang, J.; Zuo, G.; Lin, X.; Yamahara, J.; Wang, J.; Li, Y. Ginger extract diminishes chronic fructose consumption-induced kidney injury through suppression of renal overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in rats. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2014, 14(1), 174.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-174] [PMID: 24885946]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy